Obligatory Acts in Islam

In the previous post, we learned the broader meaning of worship in Islam, which is that Muslims must fulfill their duties to Allah(SWT) and to people. Therefore, we now need to know what those obligations under these two categories are. A detailed discussion of these obligations is not necessary, but the following overview will bring about a greater understanding of Islam and of Muslims.

Initially, upon embracing Islam, Muslims declare verbally and recognize from the heart, “There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah.” Through this declaration, they enter into a contract with the Lord. They recognize Allah (SWT) as the Lord, the entire concept of tawhid (the Oneness of Allah S.W.T), Muhammad (PBUT) as the Prophet of Allah and as the Seal of Prophet-hood (which is to say that no other prophet of Allah (SWT) will come after him, and that the holy Qur’an is the final word of Allah (SWT). Through this contract, Muslims completely submit their will to the will of Allah (SWT), guarantee that they are not going to disobey Him or insert their own ideas in any way into religious matters, and will follow His commandments.

If Muslims do not totally surrender, then they have not entered into Islam completely. If this is the case, then what can they be considered? Who can tell, and what should one call them: half in, half out; head in, body out; sneaking into Islam: fooling themselves or others or trying to “fool” Alah (SWT) or just hypocritically entering Islam? Regarding this, Allah (SWT) demands in the holy Qur’an:

O faithful believers! Enter into Islam with complete submission and do not follow in the footsteps of Shaytan; undoubtedly, he is for you a manifest enemy. [2:208]

Simply writing one’s initials is not sufficient; one’s complete signature must appear on a contract for it to be valid and enforceable. Upon signing a contract voluntarily and willfully, it is presumed that it will be followed and any breach thereof is dealt with in full force as underlined in the contract. Mistakes here and there may be forgiven, but violations must be cured through appropriate measures. However, completely disregarding a contract renders it null and void, and no benefit can be claimed by the party at fault.

Recently, I have come across terms such as “practicing” and “non-practicing” being used to explain how religious a person is. Even some Muslims are noticed uttering, “We are non-practicing Muslims.” Also it is becoming common for some Muslims to ask each other, “Are you a practicing Muslim?” or “Are you a non-practicing Muslim?” Also, it is becoming common for some Muslims to ask each other, “Are you a practicing Muslim?” or  “Are you a non-practicing Muslim?” or “Are you a not-so practicing Muslim?” Remarks such as “I am not that kind of Muslim” or “Oh, you are that kind of Muslim” have become common. Whatever the reply is, it is said boldly, without any remorse and sometimes with pride.

Let me state very clearly that, Islamically speaking, there are no such terms as a “non-practicing Muslim” or a “not-so practicing Muslim.” One is either Muslim or not; there is nothing in between. However, there are other terms for willful violators in Islam, such as fajir (sinner), fasiq (transgressor), munafiq (hypocrite), and murtad (apostate). Allah (SWT) catergorized people in the Qur’an Himself and revealed:

And some from the general populace say, “We people have come to believe in Allah and the Last Day,” whereas they are not from the believers. They intend to deceive Allah and Muslims, but they do not deceive but themselves and are unaware of it. In their hearts is a disease, so Allah lets them progress in the disease, and for them is a painful torment for they used to lie. [2:8-10]

By intentionally and wilfully declaring the following Cardinal Article of Faith, one becomes a Muslim:

I have faith in Allah; His angels, His holy books, his prophets, the Day of Judgment, (the fact that both) good and bad comes from Allah, and in the resurrection (after death).

I have discussed in detail about Allah (SWT) earlier in this blog.

Angels are Allah’s (SWT) creatures who were created from nur (light) and do not have a nafs (base self). They neither disobey Allah (SWT) nor deviate from their purpose of serving Him. Their purpose in the kingdom of Allah (SWT) is fixed, and they perform accordingly. Their nourishment is the remembrance of Allah (SWT). They do not procreate. It is required for Muslims to have faith in their existence. The most important and exalted angels are Jibrail (Gabriel – A.S), Mekail (Michael- A.S), Izrail (A.S), and Israfil (A.S).

Having faith in the holy books means that Muslims must believe that the Taurat (Torah), Zabur (Pslams), Injil (Gospel) and the holy Qur’an were revealed  by Allah (SWT) to His Prophets and were not written by men.  According to Islam, the Taurat, Zabur, and Injil do not exist in their original form and are no longer valid. Now, only the holy Qur’an remains valid as the guidance from Allah (SWT) for all times to come. The holy Qur’an was discussed briefly earlier in the blog.

To have faith in Allah’s (SWT) prophets means to recognize all of them as chosen men who were sent to guide humankind. As per Islam, Muslims cannot disbelieve in even one of them. They must believe and respect all of them, from Adam (A.S) to Isa (Jesus – A.S) and of course Muhammad (Peace be upon them), the Final Prophet and Seal of Prophet-hood, Muslims must attach proper salutations whenever saying or writing their names, in order to pay utmost respect to them and must have affection in their hearts for them. I discussed the need for and role of prophets earlier in the Blog.

Believing in the Day of Judgement is central to Islam. The matter of accountability, fear of punishment, and expectation of reward, all provide impetus to follow the commandments of Allah (SWT) in this life. Believing in the Day of Judgment and everything that will happen in it brings unique and worthwhile changes to a person’s behaviour. (See the next chapter for more details)

Believing that good and bad comes from Allah (SWT) means that He is All-Powerful, Almighty, and All-Knowing; nobody else brings good to us besides Him, and nobody else can bring misfortune but Him.When good comes to us, it is because of His kindness, blessing, and pleasure. When we suffer from misfortune and come across any pain, although it comes from Him, it is because of our own fault, bad deeds, misbehaviour, crimes, and sins, for which we must pay. In one sense, it is better to receive pain and punishment for unforgiven sins here in this life because punishments and sufferings of this life are only temporary, while the punishment, excruciating pain, and sufferings of the Hereafter are eternal.

The belief that all good and bad comes from Allah (SWT) does not mean that Allah (SWT) has already decided to inflict pain on some and bring pleasure to others. It only means that both good and bad come from Allah (SWT). Allah (SWT) is just and never does any injustice.

Having faith in the resurrection means believing in life after death Certainly, without coming back to life, Judgement Day and the concept of accountability to establish punishment or reward are not possible Thus, Muslims must concurrently believe in life after death.

Every now and then, we see dead bodies, either of our own loved ones, friends, and colleagues or of others. In one way or another, when dead bodies are disposed of, it is certainly difficult to understand and believe how a dead body, after it has been buried for so long and turned into dust, ashes, or mixed into earthly soil, can be brought back to life. It is easy to believe that death is some permanent reality, but the fact is that this death is temporary, just like this life of ours on Earth.

Allah (SWT) clarifies in the holy Qur’an that:

Everyone will be tasting death and will be fully given their due only on the Day of Judgement. Whosoever is saved from Hell and is admitted into Heaven certainly becomes successful. And this earthly life is nothing but a deceptive earning. [3:185]

In this sacred verse, only the “tasting” of death is mentioned, and just the “taste” of it does not make it permanent. For Allah (SWT), it is not at all difficult to give life again as He gave it the first time. He can and will give life for the second time.  This is a matter of belief. However, if this process were easily conceivable, believing in it would have been easy as well, and then there would be no reward for having faith in it.

The declaration of Faith brings an individual into the fold of business of rights and duties and the contract between man and Allah (SWT) become effective immediately. Among the duties of  Allahs (SWT) the first and foremost obligation of an adult Muslim is to perform the daily salah (the prayers of worship offered five times a day), the second is to observe saum (fasting during the month of Ramadhan), the third is to give zakah (obligatory charity), and the fourth is the performance of Hajj. These care called the five pillars of Islam, with the Declaration of Faith being the first.

Salah is to be performed five times a day, at prescribed times; it is an obligation of every adult Muslim, as long as he or she remains sane. Adulthood starts at different ages for boys and girls. Boys must start performing their Salah from the age of twelve and girls from approximately the age of nine. Salah should not be missed intentionally, and if missed by chance its qaza (substitute Salah) must be performed as soon as possible. It is important to perform each Salah at its due time. The fajar Salah is before daybreak, Zuhar Salah is at midday, Asr Salah is in the afternoon, Maghrib Salah is immediately after sunset, and the fifth and final obligatory Salah is Isah, which is to be performed in the night, about two hours after sunset.

On the Day of Judgment, the first question asked of Muslims will be about the establishment of salah, According to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), “Salah distinguishes a believer from a non-believer; it is the shield (that saves Muslims from sin), the key to Heaven, and the pinnacle point at which a slave meets his Master, Allah (SWT)” [Bukhari and Muslim]. Rain or shine, Muslims must perform their salah.

Salah entails physical activity as well as spiritual  nourishment. Establishing it not only fulfills a Muslim’s obligation to Allah (SWT), it also brings inner pleasure and many blessings from Him. During salah, the act of prostration is the closest point to Allah (SWT) and shows utmost humility, which is one of the core purposes of salah. Further more, nearness to Allah (SWT), peace of heart and mind, uplifting of the body, heart, and mind, and many other physical and spiritual benefits are but a few of the bounties of establishing salah.

Hundred of millions of Muslim men and women perform salah every day without any problem, hardship, or disruption in their daily routines of life. Those who intentionally miss salah are not credible. Muslims, regardless of how scholarly, pious, elevated, or spiritual they may seem. According to Islamic sharia (Law), such Muslims are categoriazed fasiq (violator) [Bukhari and Muslim]. They have no right to teach or preach Islam and should never be considered an authority on Islam. How can those who do not first properly learn or practice themselves teach or preach to others?

To observe saum means to fast in Ramadhan, the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar. Ramadhan is an important and blessed month in which there is a night called Lailatul-Qadr (Night of Power). It is widely believed to be the twenty-seventh night of Ramadhan, and it was in this night that Allah (SWT) began to reveal the holy Qur’an to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them). The reward for praying throughout this night is equivalent to the rewards for praying for a thousand months.

While fasting, Muslims do not eat, drink, inhale other than air, or consume any substance from dawn to dusk. They break their fasts at sunset. The sick and wayfarers are excused from fasting, but they must make up for the days missed, whenever their condition allows them to do so. Those who are weak and cannot fast should feed one hungry person at least two full meals for every day of fasting that they miss.  Intentionally not observing or violating the rules of saum displeases Allah (SWT).

According to a Hadith-e-Qudsi, Allah (SWT) stated, “I Myself am the reward for saum.” Clearly, this is a great blessing that Allah Himself (SWT) becomes its reward. This means that He is very much pleased that the observer has refrained from eating and drinking for His sake and has resisted the pain of hunger all day long just to receive His pleasure and to abide by His rules and commandments. Almost every single adult Muslim throughout the world observes saum in the holy month of Ramadhan. Allah (SWT) reveals:

O faithful believers! Obligatory upon you is fasting, as it was made obligatory upon those before you, that you may now become pious. [Qur’an 2:183]

This verse also informs us that fasting was made obligatory in one form or another, upon earlier nations. According to this verse, the main purpose of fasting is to achieve piety. It is not simply to refrain from food for a certain period and then eat uncontrollably. During fasts, it is necessary to be extra cautious about refraining from sinful acts and to perform acts of worship and other good deeds as much as possible in order to receive abundant blessings. This month is basically the training period for Muslims to achieve piety and to learn how to remain pious throughout the year. If Muslims do not become pious and simply alter their schedules of food intake during Ramadhan, then they have neglected its entire purpose. The training of Ramadhan is lost if throughout the year Muslims do not act as they are supposed to.

Unfortunately, an increasing number of Muslims are celebrating the end of Ramadhan in an un-Islamic fashion that clearly indicates that they did not learn anything during the holy month and did not acquire any level of piety. Islam does not allow celebrating in such a way that violates its basic teachings and that clearly defeats its intended purpose. The blessings and goodness of Ramadhan will stay with those who perform their best during it. As for those who ignore Allah’s (SWT) commandments or indiscriminately  violate them, one can only pray for them to be guided before their time is up.

During fasting, aside from recognizing the pain of starvation, Muslims come to appreciate the value of food and physically feel the pain of poor people who normally never have enough to eat. As humans, we should never take for granted the abundance of food, and we should always be mindful of the less fortunate. The more aware we become of other people’s pains through experiencing the same, the more caring we will be. The more caring we become, the more we will share the bounties of Allah (SWT) with others. The more we share, the more  love there will be in human society, ultimately resulting in real peace and happiness. The means to obtain real peace and harmony are there; we just have to reach out to them.

In the month of Ramadhan, Allah (SWT) is more forgiving and kind. He readily forgives anyone who earnestly repents. He abundantly blesses those who seek His blessings. The reward of a good deed performed in the month of Ramadhan are multiplied seventy times and in some cases seven hundred times.  Throughout the world, Muslims try to reap more reward in Ramadhan by praying abundantly, reciting the holy Qur’an, spending money for the needy, feeding the hungry, and enjoying every single moment of Ramadhan in the true Islamic spirit. Many Muslims even burst into tears when this blessed month comes to end because they fear they may not live to see it the following year. These genuine believers acquire blessings, achieve piety, complete training, and remain faithful throughout the year. Of course, they will also receive the “Reward of Allah (SWT) Himself” on Judgment Day.

Among the other duties of Muslims is to give zakah (the islamic obligatory charity) on their wealth. The rule is that anyone in possession of a certain amount of wealth for a full year is obligated to give 2.5% of its total value as zakah. In the holy Qur’an, Allah (SWT) clearly outlines the eight eligible recipients of zakah:

 Charity is (for) the poor and the needy and those employed to collect it and those whose hearts are to be consoled and to emancipate a slave and those in debt and in the way of Allah and the needy wayfarers. These allocations are from Allah and Allah is All-Knowledgeable and All-Wise. [9:60]

This monetary form of duty is incumbent on all able Muslims, in order that Muslims in need can be helped. Since this is a duty of the relatively rich, the rights of those in need are easily and automatically fulfilled. Through the proper distribution of zakah, an entire society can progress easily and prosper. Giving zakah purifies one’s wealth.

When Muslims give zakah willfully, their hearts are cleansed of the love of this material world because the intent is to please Allah (SWT). This proves that they truly believe in Allah (SWT) and in their accountability on Judgment Day. Not only does giving zakah help fellow Muslims, it is a form of worship as well. The Prophets ( Peace be upon them)  stated:

Those Muslims who properly give zakah, never lose their honestly earned wealth; in fact, it is secured and can never be destroyed because  Allah protects it. [Abu Dawud]

The institution of zakah has many inner and spiritual benefits. One of the explicit benefits is that it creates the perfect foundation for a sound economic system.  Zakah benefits every member of a society and leads to relative economic equality. It can be given directly to deserving Muslims (from the categories quoted above) or entrusted to an Islamic government or to any other designated trustee for its proper distribution. Certainly, individual Muslims who personally give zakah fairly and equitably, reap more reward and satisfaction [Muslim].

So far, we have learned about the Islamic acts of worship of daily salah and fasting, which are of physical nature, and of zakah, which has a monetary aspect to it. Now we come to the obligation that comprises both physical and monetary aspects- the Hajj.

Hajj is the sacred pilgrimage to Makkah and is obligatory once in lifetime for Muslims who have the physical and monetary means to do so, provided the route of their travel is peaceful enough to make the journey. Moreover, pilgrims must leave behind enough money and provisions for their family for whom they are legally responsible.

Anyone who is financially able but physically incapable of making he trip can choose another Muslim to fulfill this obligation on his or her behalf and expense. A Muslim woman can only travel to Hajj while accompanied by her husband or a maharam, a man whom she cannot legally marry (e.g., father, son, brother…) [Bukhari].

Hajj takes place in Zul-Hijjah (the twelfth and last month of the Islamic calendar). Nowadays, about three million Muslims perform Hajj, and this number increases each year.  The experience of Hajj is so unique and full of blessings, spirituality, and inner satisfaction that it cannot be described in words. Pilgrims never wish to leave these holy places; however, they do so with a strong desire to return once again. A Muslim who performs Hajj becomes pure, like a newborn child who has no sins.

Only Muslims are permitted to enter the confines of the holy cities of Makkah and Madinah. Upon watching the Haj pilgrimage through media broadcasts, even non-Muslims witness its uniqueness that reflects the simplicity of Islamic principles and the equality and unity of Muslims.

Aside from the faraidh (obligatory acts) that are to be practiced by all Muslims-jihad, acquisitions of the knowledge of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), joining funeral processions of Muslims, and a’tikaf (Worshiping in seclusion in the last ten days of Ramadhan) are obligatory acts the performance of which by only a few relieves the rest of the Muslim community from fulfilling them. However, if no one performs these obligations, then the entire community become sinful. These obligations are known as Fardh-e-Kifayah. There is great reward for those who take on the responsibility of fulfilling them and for relieving their community.  Besides the faraidh there are many other acts classified in this way:

  • Wajib-obligatory, slightly distinguished from fardh, which are more obligatory
  • Sunah-tradition of the Prophet
  • Mustahab-recommended
  • Nafil- supererogatory (more than what is required)
  • Mubah – neither prohibited nor obligatory
  • Makruh- unbecoming/disgusting (not unlawful, but disapproved of )
  • Haram- prohibited (abstaining is obligatory)

After performing the obligatory acts, Muslims who engage in nafil acts become closer to Allah (SWT) and receive abundant blessings. They, as a result, are endowed with wisdom and spirituality. Through-out the holy Qur’an and ahadith, Muslims ae commanded to practice other good deeds as well; some of which are presented below.

O faithful believers! Enter into Islam completely… [2:208]

O faithful believers! Spend in the way of Allah out of what He has provided for you..[2:254]

O faithful believers! Do not waste your charities by boasting (about)favours and by inflicting pain, like those who spend their wealth to show off to others…[2:264]

O faithful believers! Give from the pure wealth you have earned and that which We took out for you from the Earth, and do not intend to give from what is worthless, which if given to you, you would not accept… [2:267]

O faithful believers! Fear Allah as He ought to be feared, and do not die except in a state that you people are Muslim. And strongly grasp the rope of Allah all together, and be not divided…[3:102-103]

O those who brought faith! Do not consume one another’s wealth unlawfully…[4:29]

O those who brought faith! Stand firmly for justice while testifying, for the sake of Allah, even if it be against yourselves or your parents and immediate relatives…[4:135]

O those who brought faith! Fulfill your covenants…[5:1]

O those who brought faith! Stand firmly as witnesses of justice for the sake of Allah. And let not the enmity of a nation excite you to forego justice, so do justice…[5:8]

O those who brought faith! Whoever among you becomes an apostate in the deen (religion). so Allah shall soon bring forth a people making them His beloved, and they too shall love Allah…[5:54]

O faithful believers! Do not take (as friends) those who have made your religion a mockery…[5:57]

O those who brought faith! Alcohol and gambling and idols and divining are in fact impure works of Satan, so protect (yourself) from them, to acquire success…[5:90]

Those who brought faith and did not mix their faith with evil, for them is peace, and they are the rightly guided…[6:82]

(O Prophet) say that shameless acts have been forbidden by our Lord, those that are visible and hidden, and sins and unjust oppression…[7:33]

O those who brought faith! Fear Allah, and be with the truthful ones. [9:119]

O faithful believers! Do not attach  (yourselves) to the feet of Satan, and he who attaches to the feet of Satan, so undoubtedly he (Satan) commands (them to do) shamelessness and evil doings…[24:21]

O Muslims! Do not go into houses other than your own houses, unless you have asked for permission and greeted the residents with salam (greeting of “Peace”). This is better for you, if you think. [24:27]

O faithful believers! Remember Allah with much remembrance. And glorify Him, morning and evening. [33:41- 42]

O faithful believers! Fear Allah, and speak the most righteous speech [33:70]

O faithful believers! If some transgressor brings to you any news, verify it thoroughly, so that you inflict hardship upon any people unknowingly and are left regretful for what you have don. [49-6]

O faithful believers! Men may not make fun of other men; it is highly possible that they are better than those who make fun. And women may not make fun of women; it is highly possible that they are better than those who make fun…[49-11]

O faithful believers! Do not be goo suspicious, certainly some suspicions are sinful, and do not seek fault, and do not backbite one another. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of your dead brother?… [49:12]

O faithful believers! Keep fearing Allah, and everyone should look at what they sent forth for tomorrow…[59:18]

O faithful believers! Why do you say that which you do not do yourself? It is extremely unpleasant to Allah that you say what you do not do yourself. [61:2-3]

O faithful believers! Let not your wealth and your children keep you from the remembrance of Allah. And those who do so, they are the losers. [63:9]

O faithful believers! Save yourselves and your families from that fire, the fuel of which are men and stones….[66:6]

O faithful believers! Repent while facing Allah, a solid repentance. It may be that your Lord will eliminate your sins and admit you into the Gardens..[66:8]

Last, but not least:

And those who brought faith and did good deeds- We do not even give a command except for what is bearable-these are people of Paradise wherein they shall eternally live. [7:42]

What does Islam want Muslims to become?

Allah (SWT) crowned humans as the “Best of all Creatures.” He wants us to become worthy of this status. He provided the necessary tools and knowledge in the form of a manual called the holy Qur’an and through the perfect embodiment of it. i.e., the Prophet (Peace be upon them),so we can easily achieve our goal. Allah (SWT) did His part, and now if we choose to enter into the “contract” and submit our will to the will of Allah (SWT) we must do our part.

Allah (SWT) wants a believer to carve out the sculpture of a momin (believer) from the chunk of meat called ‘human.’ When a human successfully carves himself into a true believer, he achieves the true purpose of life, and only then is he worthy of being called the “Best of all Creatures.” He finally becomes a reflection of Allah’s image, in which he was created. Allah (SWT) has provided the necessary tools and knowledge, just as a sculpture is required to have the proper tools and knowledge in order to carve out a beautiful sculpture from a chunk of stone or wood. Moreover, the believer does not have to begin the carving process from scratch; a complete model and example in the form of Prophet Muhammad’s (Peace be upon them) life is already present, thus making his job easy.

By believing in the Oneness of Allah (SWT), a Muslim saves himself from divergent thoughts and beings to focus on the ultimate reality. His concentration becomes fixated and begins to revolve around the one and fixed center. Through performing daily salah, he equips himself with humility, meekness, and modesty.  Through fasting, he becomes content with his life, grateful for Allah’s (SWT) bounties, mindful of the less fortunate, and caring and sharing towards everyone. He learns to control his desires, strengthen his body, and nourish his soul. He lives a monastic life without ever leaving the state of society. He builds resistance and endurance and becomes able to live under harsh circumstances.

Through giving zakah, he purifies his heart from the love of material wealth. He prevents himself from becoming greedy and from miserliness. He frees himself from the enslavement of this world and strengthens his belief in the fact that actual wealth is the rewards of the Hereafter. By performing Hajj, he realizes that he is not different from others and that his money and he himself are from Allah’s (SWT) sake. He aims for Allah’s (SWT) nearness and pleasure. He genuinely pursues ultimate success and gives himself up to the exclusive service of Allah (SWT) and His Prophet (Peace be upon them).

Through executing the different types of jihad, he saves himself and protects others from the evils of men and Satan, thereby establishing peace and justice for all. He perfects his inner self through continuous introspection. He strives for the success of other fellow human beings which is more important for him in the court of Allah (SWT) than his energies, time, wealth, and even his worldly life. Thus, he becomes a true friend of humanity and the torchbearer of its success.

Through forgiveness and humility, he removes arrogance and pride. Through patience, he builds endurance. Through belief, trust and confidence in Allah (SWT), he achieves rectitude  and uprightness. Through gratefulness, he becomes mindful of Allah’s (SWT) bounties and others’ favors to him. Through controlling his anger, ill desires, and sexual urges, he saves himself from falling below the status of brutes. Through simplicity, he saves himself from competing with others and avoids the enslavement of society,thereby acquiring the true taste of life. Through fulfilling promises, abiding by contracts, and keeping trust, he earns respect and trustworthiness and becomes dignified.

Through fulfilling the rights of others, being just and removing injustices, standing along with the truthful ones, and condemning cruelty, oppression, tyranny, and those who practice such, he earns a higher status in society and becomes its savior. By being sympathetic kind, helpful, merciful, affectionate, and respectful, he draws the love of people and becomes dear to them. Ultimatley, by excelling in and committing good deeds, he becomes dearer and close to Allah (SWT).

When people look at this momin (believer), the delicately carved out sculpture, and embodiment of superior characteristics, they distinguish him from the other chunks of meat. They immediately become attracted to him, begin to imitate him, offer their loyalty to him, and wish to follow his example. He becomes their leader and begins to rule over their hearts, rather than their physical beings.

For a man to become a momin is his true purpose in life for which he was created. A momin is the vicegerent of Allah (SWT) on earth, as  referred  to in the holy Qur’an. He acquires Allah’s (SWT) pleasure and is ultimately placed on the exalted station in the Hereafter. Through Islam, this is what Allah (SWT) wants us to become.

Now, you may astonishingly ask, do Muslims really do all of this? Well, what can I say here other than that this blog is not about Muslims; it is about Islam? So after reading it, you can decide for yourself. I can only say that, through my personal experience, hundreds of millions of Muslims follow their religion of Islam to the best of their knowledge, belief, and ability. Allah (SWT) will only judge them according to their intent and capabilities. Of course, there are “black sheep” everywhere. Among Muslims, they are those who not only clearly violate Islamic principles and collide head-on with the commandments of the holy Qur’an, but also deface Islam and manipulate its true picture for personal and political reasons. Such hypocrites do this in the name of moderation, revivalism, fundamentalism or this or that -ism.

The presence and behaviour of these black sheep, hypocrites, fasiqs (transgressors) and fajirs (sinners) at every level of society should not be a justification for others not to practice Islam or to reject it. To some extent, I can understand “Muslimophobia,” because of some bad elements among self-proclaimed Muslims, but I am not confident that there is no justification for “Islamophobia.” Once the true understanding of Islam and its principles is acquired, only then can related matters be judged accordingly.

One unique aspect of Islam is that everyone will be held responsible and questioned on Judgment Day for their deeds and for any harm they may have caused. No one will be held responsible for anyone else or will be able to get away with blaming others for personal decisions and choices. May Allah (SWT) bless us all!

This post is in a series of many to come on the topic of Islam from a Sufi Perspective. More articles are to follow. Please follow in the Category : Islam as a Sufi Perspective, or Alternatively subscribe to our blog!

Worship and its Broader Meaning in Islam

Humans are created with an innate desire to worship, making them naturally inclined to seek a higher authority whom they can worship. This built-in desire and natural urge to worship a higher authority require them to inquire into and know who that being could be or actually is.

Whichever higher authority people, individually or collectively, settle on to worship naturally brings some sort of mental and/or physical satisfaction, and it somewhat fulfills that inherent desire. However, we keep ourselves busy in fulfilling other personal needs and wants and often suppress that innate desire to worship. In our search, we often fail short of seeking and understanding who this higher being is or should be and how we can truly worship to fulfill this inner desire.

We not only seek to satisfy this need of worshiping, but through it seek the pleasure of that higher being and try to build a connection to acquire protection, assistance, favor, and security. Without being certain who this higher being is from whom we can draw these blessings, our worship will be misguided, fruitless, and unproductive, and will not bring any satisfaction to us. Therefore  we must first and foremost, know who that higher being is.

Through the passage of time and as the human intellect progressed people came to realize and believe that there is one single Being, Who is the Creator, the All Controlling, the Almighty, the All-Powerful. Our knowledge, understanding and common sense have brought us to the conclusion that there can only be, and in fact there is, one Supreme Being.

Whether we are religious or not, we believe that there is an Almighty Lord, Whom some call God and some call Allah (SWT). Religion strengthens our belief in Him and gives direction, a path to reach Him. Muslims believe in one Lord Allah (SWT), and others call Him by other names. Whatever the case may be, since we have come to believe in one Lord, then the questions that follow are -how are we to worship Him,fulfill our innate desire, and acquire His pleasure? Who decides what the process of worship should be? How can we strengthen our relationship with Him?

In all honesty, if we do not know what pleases them and what may upset them, it is difficult to strengthen relationships even with our own friends, families, and colleagues. Similarly, if we do not know what pleases Allah/God, then how can we go about pleasing Him and refraining from displeasing Him? Thus, to assure the pleasure of others, it is a prerequisite to find out, know, and be certain about their likes and dislikes before assuming anything on our own.

Every religion has some sort of religious practices and rituals for its followers, through which they can satisfy their inner desire and build connections to the one true Lord. It sets rules, times, and holy places for its followers who gradually become attuned to its way and purpose. Some find satisfaction through it and continue  their practices. Others do not and thus feel no reason to continue practicing.

Today, most religions have become limited to rituals and are confined to places of worship. Many see religion as just a part of life, like any other, that barely governs over any facet of their secular lives. Its followers simply live their lives according to the prevailing norms of society and believe religion has no say in them. This may either be because the religion does not provide guidelines for secular matters or because the followers are not fully aware of its teachings. Another reason may be that they simply do not want religion to interfere in their secular lives (Outside the place of worship). For them, their religion plays a minimal role in their lives and is usually set aside for special occasions or holy days. Thus, the line drawn between the religious and the secular becomes quite distinctive.

However, Islam is the complete way of life. It provides guidance for every facet of life and is not and cannot be limited to a place of worship. It does  let its followers wander outside its system or place of worship. Islam provides for and governs the entire life of its followers, from the cradle to the grave and, spiritually speaking, from the womb to the tomb, and even beyond. This is why Islam is not just a religion,but a deen ( complete way of life) prescribed by Allah. Worship in Islam is not limited to masjid (place of worship) or set aside for special times, days, or occasions. Rather, worship in Islam plays a greater role in the life of a Muslim and has a broader meaning.

Since Islamic acts and everything included in the entire process of worship are not man made, but revealed and prescribed by the Almighty Himself, they provide complete fulfillment and satisfaction to our natural desires. When Muslims abide by every commandment and fulfill every obligation, they acquire complete peace, harmony, and fulfillment. They successfully build a strong connection to Allah (SWT). By this, Muslims do not try to please the Lord through their own way. and understanding, but through divine rules set forth by the Almighty Himself.

Thus, they acquire Allah’s (SWT) pleasure, a contented life in this world, and finally ultimate success in the Hereafter.

Every rule and activity in Islam are interconnected to the actual purpose of human life,’ which is to seek Allah’s pleasure and to prepare for the life in the Hereafter. In Islam, worship and what it entails encompass the entire idea of human life. Whether an act is religious or secular, obligatory or voluntary, directly related to the Lord or to His creatures, a physical act or just a mental thought, a moral act or a matter of business – whatever Muslims do with the pure intent to seek Allah’s (SWT) pleasure becomes worship. The actions of Muslims who mean well and intend to do good turn into constant worship, and they receive reward from Allah (SWT) for everything they do.

As mentioned earlier, Allah (SWT) reveals in the holy Qur’an

And i did not create jinn and man, but to worship Me [51:56]

This holy verse reveals that the purpose of our lives is to worship Allah (SWT). If worship, as commonly understood, were limited to the confines of a place of worship, would we all just be able to sit there our entire lives and worship because it is the purpose of life? Who would do all the other necessary chores of our lives? Clearly, Allah (SWT) must have meant worship of Him to have a broader meaning so that we could simultaneously carry on other necessary activities and acquire Allah’s (SWT) pleasure through them. This is precisely the broader meaning of worship in Islam, for which Allah (SWT) created us. Islam turns man’s every action into an act of worship when it is performed in accordance with Islam.

Humans are called abd in the Qur’an, and Allah (SWT) is our Ma’bood. ‘Abd means slave, and Ma’bood means that Which this ‘abd worships. Thus, the relationship of man to Allah (SWT) is like the relationship between a slave and master. Upon recognizing Allah as our Master, We must keep this relationship in good standing and never cross over it boundaries or break it in any way. It is imperative to establish this relationship of ‘abd and Ma’bood and to embrace the fact that Allah is our Master and we are His slaves. By fulfilling every duty set forth by Him, we keep this relationship in good standing. Through love, loyalty, and performing other good deeds in addition to the required obligations, we strengthen our relationship to Him.

We must prove our relationship to Him by defeating every force of evil within ( nafs, i.e., one’s base self, and Satan) and outside (the material world) us, especially when our faith is put to the test. We must never cross the limits of this relationship by violating His commandments, breaching the contract of ‘abd and Ma’bood,overlooking the duties set forth by Him, abrogating the rights of or inflicting pain on others, stepping out of the boundaries clearly defined by Him, neglecting the rules of conduct set forth by the holy Prophet (Peace be upon them), or through any other way.

In short, every mental and /or physical effort we make to remain within the limits of this relationship of ‘abd and Ma’bood, Islam considers and rewards as part of worshiping Allah(SWT). Fulfilling the rights of Allah (SWT) and the rights of our fellow human beings are all part of the broader concept and meaning of worship in Islam. Allah (SWT) considers every human action as worshiping Him if it is executed with the intend of pleasing Him, whether it is an act of direct worship or executed for His creatures. Where else do we find such a generous and gracious Lord? Allah (SWT) accepts our positive interactions and the good we do to others are being worship of Him and rewards us fro them. Even those acts of direct worship that we do for Him that fulfill His rights do not bring any benefit to Him; rather, they benefit our own self, body, mind, and soul. He rewards us for those acts just because we followed, His commandments with the intent to please Him and for maintaining the relationship between ‘abd and Ma’bood.

Islam places two types of duties on its followers so they may fulfill the greater purpose for which they were created. Muslims are to fulfill Huquq-ul-Allah (the rights of Allah SWT) and Huquq-ul-Ibad (the rights of people). They must perform every duty before they can hope to acquire the pleasure of Allah (SWT) and ultimate success. Fulfilling these rights and performing all related duties becomes, therefore, the ‘broader meaning of worship’ in Islam.


Rights and Duties 

Islam does not emphasize demanding rights any more than it demands and prepares its adherents to fulfill their duties. There is much difference in the outcomes for demanding rights and the demand for performing duties.  The demand to perform duties creates a different kind of society, where its social and moral outlook and the mentality of citizens are uniquely different.

By instilling the sense of fulfilling duties, Islam intends to make its followers sincere and responsible. In contrast, the sense of covering rights may make people demanding and perhaps even dissatisfied. Islam promotes the ideas of fulfilling duties first and to be content and patient. Only secondarily does Islam allow individuals to press for rights, especially if and when they are purposely denied. This does not mean that people should become cowards and never ask for their rights. In fact, this only means that Islam emphasizes the fulfillment of duties more than it does the demand for rights. Certainly, as people fulfill their duties to others, everyone receives what is theirs rightfully.Nevertheless, Islam provides all means to claim one’s right and to struggle against oppressors and their oppression.

When every member of a Muslim society voluntarily and willingly fulfills his or her duty to Allah (SWT) and to others, the government will play only a limited role in that society. However, if rights are fulfilled only through continuous demand, then the government must become a comprehensive overseer and make sure people’s rights are being respected. In Islam, voluntarily fulfilling the rights of others with the intent to please Allah (SWT) turns every act into a good deed, whereas fulfilling other peoples’ rights unwillingly does not bear the quality of fruit designated for the successful ones. Therefore, Islam emphasizes fulfilling duties more than demanding rights.

Islam wants its followers to be ever mindful of Judgment Day, when Allah will deliver His justice according to individual’s performance. The more willingly and humbly we perform our duties, the more love and harmony develop in society, and the more peace and happiness prevail. In contrast, constantly and selfishly demanding rights, even lawfully, gradually makes people arrogant, unhappy, and self-centered, thereby distancing themselves from others and increasing the likelihood of being lonely and depressed. Thus, one may feel and become lonely even among a crowd of millions. Law is cold, and love is warm. Relationships base on love are everlasting and abundantly fruitful.

Everyone is supposed to fulfill prescribed duties on the basis of their individual circumstances, capacity, and capability. On Judgment Day, Allah (SWT) will hold an individual accountable according to his or her capabilities. No one will answer for others or be responsible for them, unless their responsibilities overlapped. The Qur’an reveals;

Allah does not burden any soul with more that it can bear….[ 2:286]

Rights of Allah (SWT)

The rights of Allah (SWT) include, but are not limited to, the following. We must:

  • Have unshakeable faith, recognize tawhid ( the Oneness of Allah -SWT), and never commit shirk (polytheism).
  • Recognise Allah (SWT) as the Lord and recognize all of His attributes.
  • Worship no one but Allah (SWT).
  • Submit our will to the will of Allah (SWT).
  • Engage in constant remembrance of Allah (SWT).
  • Fear Allah’s (SWT) wrath.
  • Glorify  Allah’s (SWT) majesty and sublimity.
  • Invoke Allah (SWT) in our supplications
  • Never call upon anyone besides Allah (SWT) to seek repentance.

Worshiping Allah (SWT) means paying utmost homage to Him, expressing the deepest humility and gratitude to Him, completely submitting to Him, bowing down to Him in recognition of His greatness and glory, continuously remembering Him, and following His commandments. We must take every step towards acquiring his pleasure, especially through spending our wealth, time, and energy. In this process of worship, some practices are made obligatory/ compulsory – such as, for example, the five pillars of Islam- and others are categorized as desirable and voluntary. These duties must be performed on a daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly basis or once in a lifetime, as prescribed.

Some of these duties  require physical acts, some require spending of money, and some require both. A follower can perform these duties individually and/or collectively, privately and/or publicly, in a masjid (mosque) or outside of it. Islam clearly outlines rewards for performing these duties and punishments for not fulfilling them. Let me remind you that these actions and fulfillment of duties do not bring any benefit to Allah (SWT),but to the worshiper. Punctually following His rules brings success both here and in the Hereafter.

Rights of People

The second duty is to fulfill the rights of people. In the Qur’an and sunnah, Muslims are warned repeatedly that they will earn the wrath of Allah for violating the rights of others. [Bukhari] On the Day of Judgment, Allah (SWT) will not forgive these violations; instead, the violators will first have to seek forgiveness from their victims in order to receive  Allah’s pardon [Bukhari].In many cases violators will have to forfeit their good deeds to their victims, resulting in depletion of good deeds from their roster [Bukhari].  They may have many good deeds, but because of not fulfilling or abrogating the rights of others, they may end up in Hell, until their punishment is complete.

In the court of Allah (SWT), victims will have the authority to forgive their oppressor and my choose not to take any good deeds as compensation from them. On Judgement Day, when everyone will be looking for salvation and be in need of good deeds, only some will be generous enough to forgive those who inflicted pain on them for nothing in return. These days, when no one lets anyone go free, how can one expect that anybody will let anyone go free at that crucial juncture?

In many cases, Allah may forgive the shortcomings and deficiencies in our duties to Him and may forgive our sins, except the sins of kufr (infidelity) and shirk (polytheism). The main purpose of Judgement Day is to bring justice to the oppressed who suffered at the hands of others and to punish the criminals, sinners, and violators. The obligation fulfilling the rights of people has priority over many matters and is central to the Islamic philosophy of the broader meaning of worship. People to whom duties must be fulfilled include parents, spouses, children, siblings, paternal/maternal relatives, neighbors, wayfarers, distant relatives, friends and co-workers, employers and employees, dependents, especially those whose needs you can fulfill, people entrusted to you, orphans, widows, the elderly and disabled, refugees, the poverty-stricken, the sick, and non-Muslims living under Islamic governments. Islam even obligates Muslims to fulfill the rights of animals.

It is said that, “Heaven is at a mother’s feet.” Thus, by serving her fully, Muslims can earn Heaven easily. A mother deserves her children’s love, respect, care, and assistance because she bore them, endured labor pains,sacrificed many nights of her sleep to keep them warm and well, and much more.

Allah’s pleasure is assured when Muslims serve their fathers well. Fathers work selflessly to raise their children, earn lawful wages, and toil hard to train their children in the best manner and to be fit for society. Thus, the success of children depends on their father’s hard work and sacrifice. According to the Prophet (PBUT), when a father gets two of his daughters married, he is rewarded with Paradise. [Mishkat]

Parents are promised an exalted status in Heaven if they raise their children to be true and sincere Muslims and properly equip them with necessary tools to be protected from Hellfire. Allah directly commands in the holy Qur’an:

O you who believe! Guard yourselves and your families against the fire, the fuel of which are men and stones….[66:6]

Moreover, loyal sincere wife who performs her duties to her husband is guaranteed Paradise. A husband is granted abundant rewards for being trustworthy and just to his wife and for caring for her and fulfilling her needs. A husband and a wife are made for each other, and they must fulfill each other’s rights.

The wrath of Allah (SWT) is removed from those who give to people in need for the sake of pleasing Allah (SWT), and these givers are blessed. Great are the rewards for those Muslims who fulfil their duties to others without discriminating and without selfish reasons. No single deed, however insignificant, will go unaccounted. [Qur’an 99:7-8].

From performing daily prayers to offering a glass of water to the thirsty, from erecting a masjid (mosque) to feeding the Hungary, from leading a country with honesty and justice to providing shelter to orphans, from giving millions in charity to the charity of just a smile,all are part of the broader concept of worship in Islam. Where else can we find such a Lord Who guides people’ interactions with each other and rewards them as being worship of Him? Nowhere! Allah (SWT) is the Lord of us all, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.

Spirituality in Islam

Human beings consist of body and soul. The soul alone cannot be referred to as human, and the body without the soul is a dead body that has a place not on earth, but rather beneath it. Islam provides for both, the body and soul. Its teachings fulfill the requirements of the body and teach us how to uplift spiritually. for example, food nourishes the body, and constant and unceasing remembrance of Allah (SWT) nourishes the soul.

As per the principles of Islamic spirituality, the soul, while living in the body, tries to acquire nearness to Allah (SWT). The aim of Islamic spirituality is to seek complete purification of the soul and of the inner self and to try to submerge with the Supreme Source [Kashful Mahjoob]. However, in no way is the seeker permitted to leave the bondage of this life and the duties attached to it, until death comes to the body. In other words the seekers of spirituality-sages saints, and mystics-live in this world but do not let the world live in them. Their famous sayings and teachings are true reflections of Islamic spirituality. For example, they say, “Let the boat be on the water, and let not water be in the boat,” and “Let the heart live in the world, and let not the world live in the heart.” During their lives, they keep their hearts empty of worldly desires and purify themselves to receive divine reflections of the Supreme Being and the light of ultimate truth. They acquire the higher state of nearness to the Almighty and enjoy the true taste of existence and of life.

Islamic spirituality does not permit seekers to renege on worldly obligations, even when they have attained the pleasure of and nearness to Allah (SWT). They just have to exclude this world from their heart and keep Allah’s ( SWT) remembrance in their hearts, while living among people and performing all the duties of this life. Islam gives new meaning to monasticism, one with which the world was not previously familiar.

If you decide  to live in a cave or on a mountain peak, separating yourself from the world, but are negligent of the Lord, then according to Islam you are not living a monastic life and will not acquire spirituality. On the other hand, if you live in society, take care of your worldly responsibilities, fulfill you duties to others, and are not inattentive to Allah (SWT), even through you are not physically separate from the world, you are living a monastic life and can acquire spirituality.

Furthermore, the meaning of the monastic life that Islam presents is the most applicable, practical, suitable, and fitting for human nature. By not separating its followers from the physical world, Islam reminds and reiterates that the world is created for humans and that humans are not created for this world, but for Allah (SWT). They should utilize the wold and its bounties as prescribed by Islam and work to attain spirituality. Islam does not allow its followers completely suppress natural desires and needs for any reason.

To summarize, a human being is the embodiment of both animalistic needs and spiritual qualities. Islam does not advocated for complete suppression of our needs and instincts in order to acquire spiritual uplifting. We must fulfill both needs to obtain the higher and illuminated state for our soul.

From where do true Muslims draw Energy?

It is difficult for a person to live a life of utmost piety, refrain from every harmful act, and attain spiritual advancement. In other words, it is hard to swim in water and not get wet, to play with fire and not be burned, and to pass through the filth of this world and come out clean on the other side. Repelling worldly desires requires lots of courage and energy, patience to persevere, endurance to remain steadfast, and lots of hard work to maintain piety. The reward for this challenge and spiritual advancement is so fruitful and deeply satisfying and the acquisition of divine energy is so immense that man must do what is necessary to achieve it.

Faithful Muslims remember Allah (SWT) with every beat of their hearts and try to imitate every action of the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them). They mold their lives according to Allah’s (SWT) will and build their character through continuously replicating the model presented by the Prophet (Peace be upon them). Even though they live among people, deep down in their hearts and mental states, they are always present in the company of the Almighty and of His Prophet (Peace be upon them). They draw unique pleasure from this spiritual company and acquire the true state of everlasting peace and happiness, which is only felt by them and which cannot be described in words.

Faithful Muslims continuously receive spiritual pleasure and happiness by being in the company of the Lord spiritually and by living among people physically. They are not affected by the pain or oppression inflicted upon them. They are full of energy and are always willing to do whatever is necessary to maintain this spiritual state and strong connection with their Master. They sacrifice their wants and do not wish for any worldly material that may affect this state. They punctually fulfill every duty and do not do anything that may dis-please Allah (SWT), nor do they disobey Him in any way. They never deviate from the straight path and never become hypocrites. Most importantly, out of humility, they never disclose their elevated state of spirituality.

by truly following the Qur’an and sunnah, they prove that they have attained the purpose for which they were created, thus becoming the embodiment of the broader meaning of the worship. At such a purified state, they are the only people living the true life on Earth, while others just exist.

Please note that I just spoke of those mominin (the faithful ones)who truly comprehend the broader meaning of worship in Islam and have applied it to their lives. I am not taking about the saints of Islam, whose state of being is  so much more exalted, as are their achievements, pleasures, happiness, and rewards. Certainly, their duties and obligations are far greater as well.



This post is in a series of many to come on the topic of Islam from a Sufi Perspective. More articles are to follow. Please follow in the Category : Islam as a Sufi Perspective, or Alternatively subscribe to our blog!

The Purpose of Human life


It is commonly known that human life is a precious gift. It is not just life, but specifically human life that is precious. What is so special about human life that makes it precious, and why not the life of animals? Like animals, we are born, and we eat and build shelters with a few differences here and there. We work to bring food and other necessities, and animals look for their food and needs as well. They fulfill their sexual needs and we do the same.  They protect and defend themselves and watch and safeguard their territories just as we do. They care for their offspring and get old, sick, injured, and die, and all these things happen to us, too. What then is so special about human life, why is it precious?

If I were to give you a ten-ton rock as a gift to be placed in your already rocky backyard, would you call it precious gift? Normally, it would not even be called a gift, let alone a precious one, because there is no purpose attached to it. Since there is no purpose to it, it has no value, and as a result it is not precious. Whereas, if I were to give you a diamond ring or a Rolex watch, you would certainly say it was precious gift. The purpose of the diamond ring and the Rolex watch is what makes them valuable and worthy to be called precious. These items will certainly be of use to your life, and they will beautify your appearance, increase your wealth, reflect your personality, and so on.

Now we know that the purpose of something is what makes it valuable and precious-the greater the purpose, the more the value and preciousness. Furthermore, purposes and their values vary according to each person’s taste, choice, and use. One must know the purpose of anything before attaching any value to it. Therefore, it is the purpose of human life that makes it a valuable and precious gift from our Lord. If our purpose is the same as that of animals, then their life should be equally valuable and precious as ours.

Human life is more valuable than any other life and is correctly called precious because there is a grater purpose attached to it. Islam teaches us that Allah (SWT) created the universe to serve man and created man to serve Allah (SWT). Man has every animal quality and habit, but the difference is that man is granted a special purpose in life, which is to worship and please Allah (SWT). To fulfill this special purpose, humans must first control and suppress those animalistic qualities that hinder then from their purpose, and they must simultaneously develop, purify, and promote those qualities that assist them. At this point, man truly becomes worthy of this status as the best of all creatures, and only then does his life become precious, How we choose to live this life determines what our end will be in the Hereafter.

Allah (SWT) states in the holy Qur’an :

And I did not create jinn and men, but worship Me. [51:56]

Surely We have created man in the best mold (form). [95;4]

(I swear) By time! Verily man is necessarily in loss- except those who believe and do good deeds, and enjoin one another to accept the truth and to be patient. [103:1-3]


The Lord created us in the best manner possible and equipped us with every quality necessary to live as humans and prepare ourselves for the success of the Hereafter. Whoever fulfills this greatest purpose of life – to worship the Lord as He taught us-will become the guided and successful one; otherwise, he will be a loser. The choice is ours.

From man to Machine

Forgetting the greater purpose for which he was created has led man to think of this world as his permanent abode. In making arrangements to live in this supposedly permanent home, man has become a machine, and he does not control his life anymore.

Willingly or unwillingly, intentionally or not, he has become a slave, either of society or of his self-created artificial life. Competing for success, wealth, luxuries of life, fame, and other material desires has turned him into a machine, by which he has lost the inherent and necessary charm of real life.  In fact, the earth and everything else were created to serve him, but instead of enslaving them, he became their slave. He was supposed to use them to fulfill his divine purpose; yet, he gave himself into their service and became a subordinate. This servitude caused him to ask, “Why this?” and “Why that?” when he should have been looking into him-self and asking “Why me? and “What for?” Instead of appreciating the perfection of Allah’s (SWT) creativity and invoking His good name, he forgot his main purpose and lost himself to the temporary charm of this deceptive world.

Those who are lost in this world have become like machines that do not observe or think, have a heart, or worry about accountability for their actions. Machines are not mindful of their “death” or ponder what will happen to them thereafter. They do not need to ask about their creator, their purpose, or what will happen to them in the end ( when they are junked or wrecked). Humans, however, should inquire into these realities.

Considering the same example from a different angle shows  that machines, which are the creation of man, never deviate from their purpose.  They follow the orders of their owner and, even without having a mind of their own, function properly and perform tasks according to the intent of their inventor/purpose. Humans, on the other hand, even after becoming like machines, do not completely perform like them. This is, of course, because humans still have free will. Even though they can think, observe, ponder, and have a mind of their own, they fail to function properly, deviate from their course,and do not act according to the orders of their Creator and Master.

Man’s fall from humanity to barbarism is a global  phenomenon and is not limited to any one specific area or society. Even most animals do not kill their own kind, but people through unjustifiable reasons and purposes, individually and collectively, in one way or another, kill other humans ruthlessly and without any remorse. In one place, there are kings who use toilets forged in gold; yet, there are people elsewhere who barely have enough to cover their basic needs.

In some places, so much food is thrown in the garbage and wasted through other means that, if it were saved, it could easily feed millions of people who are starving elsewhere.

Forget about other creatures; look what man has himself become! Even among millions, he is alone. Regardless of different relationships and friendships, he is lonely. True friendships no longer exist, and he therefore had to replace them with artificial ones to pass the time. Sometimes, even with abundant wealth, he seems needy because he cannot buy those things that he truly needs, such as love and affection. Even those nearest to him, such as his spouse and children seem to be after his money and wealth and have no regard for his life and hard work. We are such intelligent beings, but we seem to be fooling ourselves. Fooling others is a day-to day business for some, but the fool of all fools is the one who fools himself.

Even after all the scientific and technological advancements in every aspect of human life, we fail to recognise our true status in this universe. Even with our immense power, we fail to rule over hearts and are unable to solve our own problems. This condition seems to be worsening day by day. Even with all the luxuries in the world, man is not at peace and is often fearful.

Mankind has walked on the moon and has gone far out into the universe, something that no other creature can even imagine doing. In my opinion, and forgive me for saying this, he has not even learned how to properly live on Earth, in his own habitat. Had he found a living being on the moon and had it asked, “Have you even learned others?”what response would he have?

We have all the right to explore whatever we like and need and to know the purpose of everything, but we should know our own purpose first.  To ask “why this” and “why that” is justifiable only once we have found out ” why me” and “what for.”

Instead of utilizing our faculties and applying the knowledge to determine our proper status in the universe, our purpose, and our destination, we went astray and became busy in denying basic truths. Such truths indicate that there is a purpose to human life and that there is a destination to which we all are headed.

Some think that death is the end of life, but in fact it is just a mode of transportation for the soul to get to the other world. Through death, the soul and the body are temporarily separated until the Day of Judgement when everyone will be resurrected. On the Day, souls will rejoin their bodies and will be held accountable for their actions. Divine justice will be served, and everyone will be held accountable for every iota of injustice that he may have brought upon himself or others. After all, human beings are not machines that are free from accountability. They are animate beings who have been created for a specific purpose. Whether humans choose through free will to fulfill their specific purpose or do otherwise dictates whether Allah (SWT) will reward or punish them in the Hereafter.

It is impossible for people to acquire success by going against the forces of nature. The will of Allah (SWT), through these forces of nature will always prevail. Why? Because He is the Creator of these forces.This is His world and His universe/ people do not have any overriding authority over His plans. They may devise plans to shape the world in unique ways and take actions accordingly, but they end up causing more problems and more unrest. The duty of every human being is to follow his commands and apply the rules set forth by Him.

People should not interfere with the forces of nature, and they should let the physical world be as it is. The duty is to learn about their obligations and figure out what role they have to play. A study of Islam will clearly show what people’s roles are as human beings and how they can avoid a head-on collision with the will of Allah (SWT) both individually and collectively. Islam also clearly states the answers to such questions as: What are people’s limits? How much must they submit their will to the will of Allah (SWT)? How much choice do they have? How much freedom do they require? What is the result of their choice if they do not choose wisely? What are the outcomes of the extra freedoms they sometimes demand and /or acquire? A true understanding of Islam helps in molding the decision-making process and in wisely choosing the steps to be taken, individually and collectively, to bring peace, prosperity, and happiness for all.


This post is in a series of many to come on the topic of Islam from a Sufi Perspective. More articles are to follow. Please follow in the Category : Islam as a Sufi Perspective, or subscribe to our blog!


The Sources of Islamic Knowledge

There are two primary sources of Islamic knowledge:

The Holy Qur’an and the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), i.e. what he said and did. The secondary sources of knowledge are ijma, qiyas, and ijtihad, all of which are explained towards the end of this chapter, must find their basis in the Qur’an and sunnah and must not reject or contradict the Qur’an and sunnah. These secondary sources were initially derived by and from the noble companions of the Prophet Mohammad (Peace be upon them), and Islamic scholars and jurists thereafter.

The two Primary sources

The Holy Qur’an is the living Word of Allah of which every letter of every verse was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) through Archangel Jibra’il (Gabriel) A.S. Many verses of the holy Qur’an are clear and to the point, and the message, rules, and regulations contained in them can be easily understood. At the same time, the Qur’an contains many verses with terms that can have multiple meanings, and some terms can never truly be interpreted to show there meaning. A consensus has been reached among exegetes to leave them as is to avoid controversies over their definitions However, if it becomes necessary to explain what they may mean,they should be interpreted in such a way that their definition does not contradict other verses of the holy Qur’an. In any case, the safer route is to leave their underlying meaning to the Revealer Himself.

To truly comprehend the divine message in the holy Qur’an and to see its commandments in practice, we need to focus on the life of the holy Prophet(Peace be upon them). If we ignore the ideal example of the Prophet and his explanation of the holy Qur’an, interpret the holy Qur’an as per our own initiative, and set our own precedents, we will certainly be misguided. As such, Muslims rely upon the sunnah, which is what Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) said and did.  To determine the sunnah, Muslims turn to reports by the Prophet’s (Peace be upon them) companions as to what the sunnah was. The reports are known as the ahadith (sing. hadith). Thus, the ahadith and sunnah are the second primary source of Islamic knowledge.

The holy Qur’an

At the age of forty, Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) received the first verses of the holy Qur’an from Allah (SWT). Allah (SWT) later commanded him to proclaim prophethood and to begin calling people to the One God, Allah (SWT). For the next twenty-three years, Allah (SWT) sent revelations to the holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) as they were needed. After the entire Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet (Peace be upon them) and had been well preserved, he passed away at the age of sixty-three.

Every word with its proper pronunciation was revealed by Allah (SWT) to Prophet Muhammad(Peace be upon them), who after receiving it, memorized it almost instantly through the grace of Allah (SWT). The prophet (Peace be upon them) immediately communicated every word and message of the holy Qur’an to his companions. Those who were literate among them wrote it down and some memorized it. Since the revelations came as they were needed , the prophet (Peace be upon them), according to Allah’s direction, instructed and designated seventeen of his companions to compile them.  Even though its chapters and verses were revealed in a different order, the Qur’an was complied according to the way it is written in the Lauh-e-Mehfuz (Sacred Tablet in the Heavens), of which the holy Qur’an is a small portion. The holy Qur’an has 114 chapters consisting of about 6,600 verses. Not only the text, but also the way it was written and pronounced is preserved in its original form since its inception.

The third caliph, Uthman (R.A) compiled a complete copy of the holy Qur’an (Mas-hafe Uthmani) on papyrus fourteen hundred years ago, and it is currently available for public viewing at the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. Moreover, not only is the Qur’an preserved in book form, but millions of Muslims have also memorised the entire Qur’an, word for word. Preservation through memorization has continued from the days of its first revelation and will continue until the last day. If every written copy of the holy Qur’an were destroyed (May Allah SWT forbid), which is highly unlikely, no force or individual can erase it from the hearts of millions of Huffaz-e-Kiram, the honorable Muslim adults and children who have memorised it.

A miracle of the holy Qur’an is that Allah (SWT) made it easy to be memorized by anyone who intends to do so. [Qur’an 54:17] In the Muslim ummah (community), millions memorise the entire Qur’an in Arabic, some as early as ten years of age, regardless of their mother tongue. This is one of the great miracles of the holy Qur’an and the best way to preserve and safeguard it. No other book on the face of this earth, heavenly or not, can match this divine quality or duplicate this miracle of its followers’ and their affection for the Qur’an.

Allah revealed the holy Qur’an in Arabic, the language of the holy Prophet (PBUT) and of the Arabs. Previous holy books were not protected from human interference, and the language in which they existed became obsolete. Those books only exist in much later manuscripts by which one cannot verify the authenticity of their contents. However, the holy Qur’an is protected and remains in its original form, and Arabic is well preserved and widely spoken throughout the world.

Almost every single Muslim, regardless  of his or her  mother tongue,learns to recite the holy Qur’an in Arabic from childhood.  During salah (Daily Prayers), the Qur’an must be recited in Arabic. To understand the meanings of the Qur’anic verses, translations are available in almost every language. However, it is preferred that one know  the Qur’anic Arabic in order to concentrate on and grasp the wisdom of the holy Qur’an, and it is very beneficial and rewarding to do so.

Arabic is a complex language. A slight error in pronunciation and / or misplacement of the diacritical marks can change the meaning of a word. When used in different contexts, Arabic words can have different meanings, and in just a few words one can say and mean a lot.

Allah (SWT) reveals in the holy Qur’an that it contains the knowledge of everything we need to know to reach our ultimate goal. To reveal the holy Qur’an, Allah (SWT) chose the Arabic language, because it is inherently unique and has the capacity to hold such an ocean of knowledge in a compacted form. No other language could have encompassed the Qur’an’s vast knowledge and wisdom. This may be the reason why it was revealed in Arabic. As human faculties progress,especially in the fields of science and technology, new and amazing information and miraculous knowledge from the holy Qur’an are continuously unfolding, proving its universality, the divinity of Allah’s book and His choice of the Arabic language.


The literal meaning of the word Qur’an is ‘read a lot.’ This also explains why the Qur’an is the most read book in the world. Tens of millions of Muslims recite the holy Qur’an five times a day in salah and may millions recite a considerable portion of it on a daily basis. The holy Qur’an is continuously recited throughout the world in millions of masjids (Mosques), especially in the two holiest places of Islam ( Makkah and Madinah). It is recited in thousands of holy shrines and in Islamic educational institutions. Ever since its inception, this practice has been ongoing and continuous. When a Muslim passes away, friends and family members recite the holy Qur’an abundantly and convey its earned blessings to the deceased.  In the holy month of Ramadhan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and the month of fasting, almost every single Muslim recites the entire Qur’an at least once, and some do it many times more.

People who constantly read the holy Qur’an feel an indescribable pleasure, peace, and contentment, making them want to read more and more. No other book has drawn so much attention, and the privilege given to the holy Qur’an is unique. The name Qur’an says it all. Such a befitting name could not be chosen by any man, but only by its own Author, the All-Knowledgeable Allah (SWT). The proof of its holiness is within it, and man’s natural attraction to it shows that the Maker of both humanity and the Qur’an is One. Let alone recitation and contemplation, just touching the holy Qur’an with clean hands brings many blessings.

The holy Qur’an is a miracle. Miracles become possible only through supernatural qualities. Allah (SWT), the All-Powerful, gives the power of miracles to His prophets to prove the claim of prophet hood. Allah (SWT) revealed the holy Qur’an to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them). It is, therefoe, his miracle, and no man can ever produce a chapter or even a verse of its kind, thereby proving that it is the book of Allah (SWT).

To defeat and overcome the disbelieves, Allah (SWT) granted miracles to almost every prophet. The kinds of miracles shown by prophets were the kind needed in their specific times. Ibrahim (Abraham) (A.S), Musa (Moses) (A.S), Isa (Jesus) (A.S), and other prophets were given various miracles to make people believe in their prophet hood.


The time of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) was the time of literary excellence and eloquence in the Arabic language. To prove his prophet hood,among other miracles,  a miracle full of eloquence and linguistic qualities was needed. The revelation of the holy Qur’an fulfilled the need for that miracle and miraculously provided everlasting guidance to mankind. It was revealed orally to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), who had not acquired any education from any person, not did he read or write.

The holy Qur’an was written as it was being revealed, in the order established by the Prophet (Peace be upon them) and as instructed to him by Allah (SWT). It was later complied in the same order in the form of a book, shortly after the Prophet’s passing. Then again, within a matter of years, during the leadership of the third righteous khalifa (caliph), Uthman (R.A), More copies from that original were drafted and sent to different parts of the Islamic world to be copied as needed. To make it easy for non Arabic-speaking Muslims to read the Qur’an precisely and to pronounce each word without error, diacritical marks were placed within the Qur’anic text.


Those well versed in the Arabic language were spellbound upon hearing the unique coherence, style and prose of the holy Qur’an. The holy Qur’an’s compilation, coherence, relevance, rhetoric, eloquence, perfect order, and arrangement of words, phrases, and inner meanings were completely unique to the contemporary Arab style of prose and poetry. The orators and masters of linguistics were awestruck by the miraculous Qur’an.


The way the holy Qur’an laid down the authentic stories of the previous nations, especially of bani Israil (Nation of Israel) and the past prophets, amazed even the scholars of Ahle Kitab (Primarily Jews and Christians). They themselves did not know for certain the ture accounts of those authentic narratives and held varying views about them. Moreover, future events revealed in the holy Qur’an happened as predicted, proving it to be a miracle and the book of Allah (SWT). It is not possible for a man to compile such creativity, rarity of words and meanings, and hundreds of other qualities with such precision.

Throughout the history of Islam, Muslim scholars have dedicated their entire lives with love and affection, without intending to earn fame or money, but only to serve the holy Qur’an in every way possible. Thousands of translations came to the fore and guided Muslims throughout the ages by explaining the teachings of the holy Qur’an.

Many people have served the holy Qur’an in unique ways. Some translated it into poetic form, and others inscribed it in gold lettering. Some carved it on gold plates, and some inscribed it on huge parchments, making it the largest and heaviest edition. Some wrote it so minutely that it became the smallest, legible version. Some became experts in Qur’anic calligraphy, developing thousands of different designs. Muslims created and perfected the art of recitation of the holy Qur’an. In summation, Muslims have served and continuously serve the book of Allah (SWT) in every way possible to gain the pleasure of Allah (SWT). No other book besides the holy  Qur’an can claim such a unique love and affection from it followers.

The Qur’an is unlike any other book. It is the word of Allah (SWT) and must be respected in every possible way. There are uniform rules and regulations about its safekeeping, transportation, and even how it should be placed on a shelf.  Its utmost care and protection bring many spiritual benefits, and even a slight gesture of care pleases Allah (SWT). Even the thought of disposing it with everyday garbage or intentionally placing it on walkways or  on the floor earns Allah’s wrath, and there are grave consequences of doing so. Old and worn-out copies of the Qur’an and any of its verses, no matter what material it is written on should be recycled with other holy material, buried in the ground or submerged in a body of water, i.e., pond, river, or ocean. It must not be taken into bathrooms, placed under beds, or put close to any filth. Muslims must be in the state of tahara (purity) before touching the holy Qur’an. In any case, great care must be utilized when handling holy verses of the Qur’an, and any and all disrespect must be avoided.

Compared to other books, whether sacred or secular the holy Qur’an surpasses every book in every respect. It is the most published,decorated, read, researched, and analyzed book in the world. To this day, new knowledge and wisdom are being extracted from it, and its mysteries are being disclosed as the science of every field progresses and makes new discoveries. Science brings to light what the Qur’an informed us of some 1,400 years ago. Numerous examples of this fact can be found.


The contents of the Holy Qur’an

As per the holy Qur’an, Allah (SWT) states:

…and We have sent down to you this book explaining in detail everything… [Qur’an 16:89]

And there is not a grain in the dark recesses of the earth, nor anything wet or dry, but it is written in the Luminours book. [Qur’an 6:59]

Allah (SWT) reveals Himself in the holy Qur’an and tells us how and why He created the universe and, most importantly, human beings [Qur’an 41:9-12 & 51:56] The Qur’an underlines the main purpose of our earthly life, i.e., how and why we will pass on to the Hereafter and what are the next and final phases of human life. It guides us in how to live life successfully on Earth and teaches us how to achieve ultimate success in the Hereafter. It tells us how to obtain the pleasure of Allah. It informs us of our inner and external enemies, about our physical and spiritual aspects, and about the positive forces that assist us and the negative forces that oppose us in life.

The Qur’an establishes rules and regulations for every human affair, from the most personal and private to those that affect society as a whole, It explains forms of direct and indirect worship. It discloses to us what Allah (SWT) likes and dislikes. It describes reward and punishment for good and bad behavior. It reminds us how previous nations disobeyed Allah’s (SWT) prophets and earned His wrath. It recounts how the prophets struggled to deliver Allah’s (SWT) message to humanity. It discusses human nature and the nature of everything, the creation process, the powers of the Almighty, the relationship of the Creator to His creations and every bit of matter that is required for man’s journey through this temporal state to the state of eternity.

On the other hand, the Qur’an is divine guidance for believers and remains with them all the way to their final destination. On the other hand, the Qur’an is guide for all other people whom it informs, but then does not remain with them all the way,. Taking one to his destination and simply giving him directions are two different things. Islam is the complete way of life, and all relevant information, knowledge, wisdom, and guidance are revealed in the holy Qur’an.

Here, I include the translation of the opening chapter of the holy Qur’an, which in a few short verses is believed to contain the entire message of the Qur’an [Tibrani]. Many scholars have written volumes to explain this preamble to the holy Qur’an.

In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

All praise is due to Allah indeed – Sustainer of all the worlds – the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. – Master of the Day of Judgment. – You alone we worship and You  alone we ask for help. – Walk us on the straight path, – the path of those upon whom you (have given) blessed favours, – not of those who were put under wrath, nor of those who are astray. [ Qur’an 1:1-7] (Ameen!)


What does the holy Qur’an say about itself?

In several places, the holy Qur’an testifies to its own authenticity and absolute divinity. The following verses illustrate this fact. That book in which there is not doubt of any kind; it is guidance for the fearful ones. [Qur’an 2:2]  And this is a book We have sent down, a blessed one, confirming those that were before it…[Qur’an 6:92]


Announce that “If all people and jinns united on that to bring the like of the Qur’an, they cannot bring  one like it, even if they become each others back support.”  And without a doubt, We clearly explained to people everything in the Qur’an in many ways; yet many of them, indeed, rejected (it) ungratefully. [ Qur’an 17:88-89]

And We sent the Qur’an bit by bit, so you can read it to people little by little, and We revealed it slowly and slowly. [Qur’an 17:106]

Had We sent this Qur’an on a mountain, certainly, you would see it humbled, split asunder in the fear of Allah…[Qur’an 59:21]

It is but a glorious Qur’an, in the sacred tablet [Qur’an 85:21-22]

And if you are in any doubt about what We have sent upon Our exclusive being (Muhammad), then bring just one chapter like it and call your own helps besides Allah, if you are truthful. But if you cannot do it – certainly, you will not be able to do it-so fear the fire, whose fuel is people and stone idols, prepared specifically for disbelievers.  [Qur’an 2:23-24]

And this is not a Qur’an produced by anyone, besides Allah….[Qur’an 10:37]

And without a doubt, We have explained for people in this Qur’an in every way so they may embrace guidance. [Qur’an 39:27]

Those who rejected guidance when it came to them (are going to lose) and this certainly is a dignified Book. Falsehood cannot come from before it nor from behind it – sent from the All- Wise, the All- Praiseworthy. [Qur’an 41:41-42]

“Do they not use intellect in (evaluating) the Qur’an?” Had it been from other than Allah, they would have found much contradictions in it. [Qur’an 4:82]


Interpreting the Holy Qur’an

Most people who are interested in learning about Islam turn to the holy Qur’an. Perhaps this is because of its accessibility, because they do not know of any other book that may fulfill their need to know about Islam, or maybe because they just prefer the holy Qur’an. Since the holy Qur’an is in Arabic, and not everyone knows Arabic, people choose a translation in the language with which they are most  familiar. At this point, it is important to note the difference   between a translation and interpretation of the holy Qur’an.

To translate simply means to convert one language into another, and to interpret means to explain in terms in which the matter can easily be understood.  The holy Qur’an is the Word of Allah (SWT) in the Arabic language therefore, a true translation is not possible. Now, if someone insists on taking a literal meaning of every word of the holy Qur’an, it will create confusion and the intended message of the holy Qur’an will not be understood. To understand the underlying meanings of the Qur’anic text, we need the help of a legitimate interpretation; a translation does not suffice.

The proper Arabic terms for the ‘explanation of the holy Qur’an’ is tafsir. Anyone who genuinely desires to study the holy Qur’an must resort to its tafsir. It is also important to note that not everyone is qualified to do the tafsir of the holy Qur’an, even if one is an expert in the Arabic language. An unqualified or a less qualified person who writes tafsir only interprets what he understands and does not bring forth the actual of closest meaning; therefore, he should never be entrusted with the work of tafsir.

Many Qualified people have attempted to explain the holy Qur’an according to their poor judgment had have thereby caused great harm to the religion and divided the Muslim ummah (community) into many factions. Presently, many individuals and groups refer to literal meaning of the Qur’anic text and its interpretations to promote their personal/political agendas in Muslim and non-Muslim communities. I fear that if this practice continues, it will bring forth irreparable damage to peace and harmony.

Thus, before forming opinions or making decisions about the holy Qur’an or any of its verses, a thorough study of legitimate explanation is necessary. Only a tafsir written by a qualified mufassir (one who does tafsir) sufficiently explains the actual meaning of the Qur’anic text.

As stated earlier, the holy Qur’an is an ocean of knowledge and wisdom, and it is full of guidance. Therefore, new information from it will continue to surface according to the needs of the time until the Day of judgment. The process of this flow of knowledge will be ongoing, as it has been, through proper tafsir of the holy Qur’an.   Every unqualified interpretation only brings harm and causes misunderstandings abut Islam, the Prophet of Islam (Peace be upon them), and about the Qur’an itself.

There are established guidelines to translate/interpret the holy Qur’an and set requirements for an individual to become a certified mufassir. Allah (SWT) revealed the holy Qur’an to the sacred heart of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) and made it compulsory for him to teach Allah’s (SWT) word to his companions and, subsequently, to all of humanity. Allah (SWT) verifies this in the holy Qur’an:

Undoubtedly, Allah conferred a great favour on Muslims when He raised a prophet from among them, who recites to them the revelations of Allah and purifies them and instructs them in the Qur’an and Sunnah, whereas before, they were in manifest error. [Qur’an 3:164]

Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) fulfilled this duty. He taught the Qur’an in its entirety, to his companions in the best manner possible. Therefore, he became the first Mufassir-e-Qur’an (Authorised commentator on the Qur’an) and, at the same time, he established rules to undertake further work of tafsir.  Why would he not be the first mufassir, since the Qur’an was revealed and well taught to him by Allah Himself [Qur’an 55:2] and why would he not establish rules to further the work of tafsir through his sayings that safeguard the final book and guidance of Allah (SWT)? If anyone deviates from the Prophet’s (Peace be upon them) way and attempts to write tafsir through his own judgment, opinions, and explanations of choice or convenience, he will not only become a sinner, but the proper message of the holy Qur’an will never be understood that way.  In this regard, a hadith states that if anyone misquotes the Prophet (Peace be upon them) intentionally, he secures a place in Jahannum (Hell) for himself [Bukhari and Muslim].


Some basic requirements for becoming a certified scholar of tafsir are listed below. Only once someone has mastered these skills and fields of knowledge can he begin the arduous process of explanation. Can you imagine what would become of a philosopher’s thesis or arguments if “Joe the Plumber” were to break it down and explain its meaning? Similarly, what would happen to the living word of Allah (SWT) if an unqualified person attempts to define it?

A Person must be an expert in the following areas before undertaking the task of Qur’anic tafsir. [al-Itqan]

  1. He must first be a righteous believer
  2. Knowledge of the Arabic lexicon and etymology (derivation)
  3. Knowledge of Arabic syntax (Grammar)
  4. Knowledge of Arabic morphology (internal construction of words)
  5. Knowledge of Arabic rhetoric, eloquence, and manners of oration.
  6. Knowledge of Qur’anic recitation
  7. Knowledge of the principles of Islam (dogmas, axioms)
  8. Knowledge of the principles of Islamic fiqh (jurisprudence)
  9. Knowledge of the fiqh (Jurisprudence- to interpret laws)
  10. Knowledge of the reason for revelation of a specific verse (To know proper context; Makki, Madni, Muhkam and Mutashabih)
  11. Knowledge of those verses (that annul other verses or are annulled)
  12. Knowledge of principles of hadith
  13. Knowledge of hadith (at least those related to tafsir of a verse)
  14. Knowledge of history (of past prophets,nations, and peoples)
  15. Knowledge of Arab culture (prevailing norms and practices)
  16. Ilm-e-Ladunni – divine knowledge bestowed by Allah (SWT); usually granted to only a select few.
  17. Knowledge of the fundamentals of Islam (beliefs)
  18. To some, the main ingredient is the love Allah (SWT), His Prophet (Peace be upon them). The holy Qur’an, and the propagation of Islam – this love brings the light necessary to acquire and spread the knowledge of Qur’an
  19. Ikhlas – Purity of intent – through which Allah’s (SWT) help is granted.


Even with these qualifications, one must embark on this tasks with utmost care, common sense, foresight, and complete knowledge and command of the language in which he attempts to write tafsir. Attempting to guide just a few at the inadvertent cost of misguiding many, through unqualified work of tafsir, is disastrous and unacceptable. Anyone insisting on doing tafsir without fulfilling these core prerequisites is not serious in serving the Qur’an and Islam and is in clear violation of the rules of Allah (SWT) and of the prophets (Peace be upon them). Thus, before choosing a translation/interpretation/explanation of the holy Qur’an, it is important to verify the author’s qualification, and not to accept  a tafsir just because it is widely available, commonly referred to, or free-of-charge.

The holy Qur’an is the word of Allah (SWT), and prophet Muhammad (peace be upon them) is the complete reflection of the message of the holy Qur’an. Thus the Prophet’s sunnah (sayings and actions) became the second main source of Islamic knowledge.


Sunnah of the  Holy Prophet (Peace be upon them)

The collected actions and practices of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon them) are called his sunnah, and Muslims are required to follow them. The Sunnah is also used to explain Qur’anic verses and the message and the guidance of Allah (SWT). Whatever he said or did became his hadith (pl ahadith). Furthermore, whatever actions taken or performed by his companions that the prophet (Peace be upon them) took notice of or was informed of and did not overrule or object to were also included in his sunnah.

During the holy Qur’an’s revelation, the common practice of Muslims was to memorise it;nevertheless, many companions were assigned to transcribe in written form. In the early days, the Prophet (PBUH) prohibited the writing of his words (ahadith), except for the revealed verses of the Qur’an. Later, when the difference between the Qur’anic text and ahidith was fully established and understood by the noble companions, the Prophet (PBUT) permitted the writing of ahadith separately from the holy Qur’an.

Let me digress a bit at this point and indicate that the holy Qur’an is the word of Allah (SWT). If it were not Allah’s (SWT) word and were put together by Prophet Muhammad (PBUT) himself, then why was the distinction between the Qur’an and the hadith necessary? If both originated from the same source, contained the teachings of the same person, and were unconditionally accepted by the companions of the Prophet (PBUT) then this distinction would be unnecessary. The separation of the ahadith from the Qur’an clearly shows that the Qur’an is the word of Allah (SWT) as revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUT) through Angel Jibr’il (Gabriel-A.S) and that the Qur’an was not written by Prophet Muhammad (PBUT).

It is well-recorded history, supported by authentic proofs and conveyed through reliable sources, that some companions continuously wrote down ahadith of the Prophet (PBUT) in his lifetime with his permission and separately from the holy Qur’an. The Islamic nation was emerging; therefore, everyone close to the Prophet (PBUT) kept him self busy doing essential work. After the Prophet’s (PBUT) passing, the emergence of the new Islamic nation, stretching from East to West, occupied almost every companion in such activities as governmental affairs, teaching and preaching Islam, and solving issues related to the responsibilities of defending Islam. Under these Circumstances, only the compilation of the holy Qur’an into one volume could be achieved and up to that point, no considerable need arose to compile the ahadith collectively.

As time progressed, and due to the publicizing of false ahadith the prophet’s companions and the rightly guided  scholars after them to compile the ahadith in various orders and categorical sequences. They developed rigorous methods to verify the authenticity  of narrations and to test and establish the credibility of the narrator in order to avoid preserving false sayings. With such standard in place and with the application of other stringent procedures, individuals and collectively, formally and informally, scholars compiled a treasury of ahadith. A new field of knowledge and many sub-fields related to it evolved, in which thousands of researchers became extensively engaged from the latter part of the first century of Islam and continuing until this task was completed and brought in order.

This topic  itself requires a separate book to be fully explained. It is sufficient to say that due to extensive efforts of the companions and later scholars, a huge treasury of authentic ahadith was compiled and published. Now anyone interested in Islamic knowledge can refer to this treasury of ahadith and know anything and everything contained therein. Most verses of the holy Qur’an could now be understood through relevant ahadith of the Prophet (PBUT). Because of these efforts many great works on ahadith became available in which every hadith was placed into relevant categories/subjects.

The famous authentic books of ahadith are referred to as Al-Sihah al-Sittah (“The Authentic Six”), which includes Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan an-Nasa’i, sunan Abu Dawood, Jami Al-Trimidhhi and Sunan ibn Majah. They have been translated from Arabic into all major languages, and their shuruh (explanations/commentaries) are available worldwide. Besides Prophet Muhammad (PBUT), no other personality can be accounted for in such detail; his every action and sayings is well-preserved. His ahadith are the second primary source of Islamic knowledge.

The companions and religious scholars who came immediately after them not only transmitted the ahadith in their most authentic version, but they also gave explanations and defined them and their historical context, i.e., what the occasion, circumstance, and purpose were when the Prophet (PBUT) said it or executed an act. Many books of ahadith, along with their explanations and with explanations of those explanations to clarify them further, have been written to enhance the Islamic knowledge.

Allah (SWT) makes it incumbent upon Muslims to follow the sunnah (Sayings and actions) of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) in addition to the teachings of the holy Qur’an. Allah (SWT) states:

Any obey Allah and His Prophet in order that you may be shown mercy.  [Qur’an 3:132]

As stated earlier, the sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) is the second of the two primary sources of knowledge. If we are unable to locate or understand anything from the Qur’an, we have to consult the sunnah of the Prophet (Peace be upon them). For example, the holy Qur’an obligates Muslims to establish salah (daily prayers of worship), but it does not explain how to do it. It is only in the sunnah that Muslims can find how to perform salah. Thus, we find in the sunnah how to perform correctly and practically our religious duties. According to a hadith: Ibn Abbas (R.A) narrated that the Prophet (Peace be upon them) in his Last Sermon said,

“I leave two things amongst you. If you strongly hold on to them, you will not go astray.

One is the book of Allah (Qur’an), and the other is the sunnah of the Prophet of Allah.”[Al- Mustardark]

This shows the importance of sunnah/ahaidth for Muslims. The knowledge contained in them is essential to understand and apply the message of the holy Qur’an. Leaving aside the sunnah will make an understanding of Islam incomplete and will result in the holy Qur’an being misunderstood or misinterpreted.

Upon sending the honorable companion Mauz (R.A) to Yemen to resolve a matter of distributing alms to the poor, the Prophet (PBUT) asked him, “O Muaz, by what rule will you act?” The companion replied, “By the law of the Qur’an.”  The Prophet (PBUT) said, “If you find no direction therein?” He replied, “Then I will act according to the sunnah of the Prophet.” The Prophet (PBUT) said, “What if you do not find it there?” to which he replied, “Then I will make ijtihad and act on that.” Approving of his response, the Prophet (PBUT), bade him farewell and , raising his hands, said, “Praise to be Allah, Who guides His Prophet in what He pleases.” The Prophets’s (PBUT) approval of the companions ijtihad (use of best judgment based on Qur’an and sunnah) set a precedent and became a permissible way to make decisions. According to the Qur’anic injunctions, whatever Allah’s Prophet (Peace be upon them) approves of becomes legitimate and is made into law, and whatever he disapproves of becomes prohibited and is made unlawful.


Ijma, Qiyas, and Ijtihad

The act of deducing and formulating injunctions based on the Qur’an and sunnah is called ijihad (the use of personal judgement) and qiyas (logical deduction by way of analogy). The one who does ijtihad is called mujtahid (pl. mujtahidun). Ijma is the majority consent of the mujtahidun. These three standards interchangeably are considered the secondary sources of Islam knowledge.

Whenever learned scholars of Islam are unable to locate specific religious injunctions because the holy Qur’an and sunnah are silent and do not clearly define a course of actions, they have been permitted to exercise their judgment and formulate a course of action for new circumstances/issues. The verdict of a mujtahid is widely accepted because it is deducted from the primary sources.  If any individual or collective judgment contradicts the Qur’an and sunnah, it is unacceptable, no matter how sound or appropriate it may seem.

After the passing of the Prophet (Peace be upon them), ijtihad and qiyas became a normal practice of his companions as new issues surfaced. The first and second generations of scholars after the companions were also authentic mujtahidun because they came immediately after and were direct descendants and students of the companions who learned Islam directly from the Prophet (PBUT).


The notable Imam Abu Hanifa strongly supported qiyas to deduce judgments as new and unusual needs and circumstances arose. Since these needs will continue to come abut, the use of qiyas can be utilized. For example, a Muslim wants to know whether a kidney transplant is allowed in Islam or wants to obtain a fatwa (religious edict) from a mufti (Muslim jurist) on what Islam says about selling beer. It is a religious duty of a mufti to issue a fatwa on the basis of Islamic sharia law and properly guide the inquirer. In Islam, no human being has authority to insert ideas into Islam. Thus, the original message and guidance of Allah (SWT) remain preserved.

Some of the initial qualities required for mujtahid or serve Islam are piety, religious and spiritual knowledge, inner wisdom, compassion and affection for the Prophet (PBUT), iklas (Purity), dedication, and determination. At this point, it is fair to say that since these authentic saintly and selfless beings who served Islam have now become scarce, it is necessary to keep ijtihad off-limits to incapable Muslims in order to preserve and maintain the validity of the authentic teachings of Islam.

The holy Qur’an, the Prophet’s (PBUT) sunnah, ijma, and qiyas cover every aspect of human life. Nothing is left out for Muslims to search anywhere else for religious and ethical answers. A well-regulated system and knowledge base to legislate laws have been established by the historical mujahidun. Every Muslim scholar of law must refer to those when making new laws for the the ever-changing needs of the Muslim society.


 This post is in a series of many to come on the topic of Islam from a Sufi Perspective. More articles are to follow. Please follow in the Category : Islam as a Sufi Perspective, or subscribe to our blog!

The Need and Role of Prophets.

As we learned earlier, Allah (SWT) willed to be known; therefore, He created everything for Him to be known. A creature, later to be called human, was a part of His will from the beginning and a part of the process of creation. It was also included in His will that humans be given a fixed time to live on earth and be granted free will and the power to choose, They are taught right from wrong and tested to see if they follow Allah’s (SWT) will or their own will. Then, finally, on the basis of the results of their actions, they will be given permanent life in Heaven or Hell. All of this was included in His will from the moment “Allah willed to be known” and thereafter began to create according to His will.

Only Allah (SWT) knows how many millions of years later the time arrived to create Adam (A.S), the first human. Soon thereafter, it became necessary to send him and his wife Hawwa (A.S) to Earth. Eventually, the need arose to teach and guide humans, so they could distinguish right from wrong and choose to be successful; the process of teaching and guiding people had to be undertaken. Thus, those who had been chosen by Allah (SWT) to fulfill this great task of teaching preaching, and guiding humankind are the messengers and prophets of Allah (SWT). These people are among the best of humankind.

At the time the father of us all, Adam (A.S), was created, every human soul that had to come to life on earth was also created. Allah(SWT) assembled every soul  and asked, “Am I not your Lord?” All replied, “Why not.” Allah (SWT) had knowledge that they would soon forget this covenant upon reaching earth [Qur’an 7:172]. Therefore,arrangements were made to teach, preach, guide, and remind people about the ‘Great Gathering’ to take place in the end, where undoubtedly everyone will witness or at least feel His presence and be held accountable for their actions.

However, had we remembered our reply to “Am I not your Lord?” we would be much better off. Had we remembered, how could we have done so much wrong in this life? How could we have gone astray? How could we now have denied the existence of Allah  (SWT)? How could we have committed the sin of Kufr  (Infidelity) and shirk (Polytheism), and disobeyed His commandments? Had we remembered Allah (SWT) all along, why would we be tested? Had we remembered this, we would never have deviated from the righteous path, and acquiring success would not have been a problem. Hence, there would have been no need for prophets to teach, preach, and guide us, because we would know and remember Allah (SWT), the Almighty, our Lord.

As we came to live on earth and grew, we forgot the covenant we made with Allah (SWT) [Qur’an 9:67]. However, as soon as we depart from this life, we will come to realize it. Remembering our prior covenant with Allah (SWT) at the time of our departure from this life cannot bring us back to the beginning to fulfill our covenant. There is no coming back: it is either now or never. 


The essence of Islam is to believe in the unseen/metaphysical/ spiritual, which is invisible to the naked eye, but visible to positive reasoning. To believe in the unseen/hidden, it is necessary to received Allah’s (SWT) assistance, guidance, signs, and symbols that are evidence of His existence. We also need them to satisfy our curiosity and to provide answers to all of our questions, so we can confidently believe in the unseen. Each one of us, by ourselves, is unable to receive that guidance directly from Allah (SWT), because if such were the case, nothing would remain unseen or hidden.

Therefore, there was a need for someone to: receive guidance from Allah (SWT) and convey it to us, learn from Allah (SWT) and teach us, store Allah’s (SWT) energy and energize our soul, and be enlightened by Allah’s (SWT) radiance and lift us from the darkness of ignorance and bring us into the light of knowledge. These beings were to be trusted beyond any doubt, to be worthy and capable of this great deed, to relate to us and to the Lord Almighty at the same time, to remind us of our purpose and our destination, and to show us how to follow in their footsteps in practical manner.

Who can these exalted beings be? Could they be any other than those chosen by our Lord? No. Then, they are quite obviously His prophets and messengers. They came and fulfilled their duties with utmost diligence, selflessness, and steadfastness. Now, it is all up to us, because this lifetime is our only chance; we must use it or lose it.

Adam (A.S)  was the first prophet. Right from the beginning, he had to be the first one to teach the message of Allah (SWT) to his children. Later, other prophets came to every nation, one after another, to guide them and deliver the message of Allah (SWT). Finally, from among them, the last one was Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them).

All Prophets were human beings, but chosen ones, exalted among the people. They had to come from among humankind because if it were otherwise, they could not relate to us, and we could not follow them. It  would have become easy for us to deny them and their teachings, simply because we could say to Allah (SWT), ” O Lord! How could we replicate their life, their sacrifices and their trials and tribulations, when we are just humans and they are different from us?”

   And if We had made the prophet and angle, even then We would have made them (in the form of) a man, and thus We would have confused them in a matter wherein they are now confused. [Qur’an 6:9]

This is why the All-Knowing Allah (SWT) chose His prophets from among humans, so people can follow their example and emulate their lives. It was also necessary to give the prophets the power of miracles, so people who chose to believe in the prophets could have unshakeable faith in them, and those who chose to deny them would have no excuse on Judgment day by saying that they could not verify them to be Allah’s (SWT) prophets. Certainly, through prophets, Allah (SWT) completely conveyed His guidance to humanity. It is now our choice to be righteous or to be evil, to be successful or to fail, and to live the eternal life in Heaven or in Hell. The burden to choose and act falls on us individually. No one else benefits or loses by what we choose for ourselves. Islam teaches us to choose wisely and for our own good.

Allah (SWT) sent prophets from amongst their own people. They called their nations towards one Lord and explained to them the purpose of life on Earth. They taught them how to live and worship Allah (SWT) how to fulfill their duties to Allah (SWT) and to their fellow humans. The prophets delivered to humanity whatever they were assigned and were required to do.


Allah (SWT) required people, as prerequisite, to have faith in His prophets and recognize them as beloved beings of Allah [Qur’an 4:80 & 2:253]. Not a single prophet demanded anything in return from his people for the favour of conveying Allah’s (SWT) guidance to them. The prophets did not seek monetary benefit, power, or adulation; instead, they sacrificed their time and energy, endured pain and suffering, and were humiliated to save their people from evil doings, grave sins, shirk, and being disobedient to Allah (SWT).

As one prophet passed away, Allah (SWT) would send another one. According to a saying of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), Allah (SWT) sent about 124,000 prophets. During their lifetime, the prophets and their followers suffered greatly at the hands of disbelievers, who many times forced them to leave their homeland or even killed them. However difficult the environment became, the prophets remained steadfast and never gave in or disavowed their divine obligations.

As prophets passed away, their teachings were corrupted and in many cases purposely changed to legitimize the rule of the elites over the less fortunate.  The true believers always remained steadfast to the teachings of their respective prophet, and Allah (SWT) brought countless rewards and blessings upon those steadfast believers. In contrast, Allah’s (SWT) wrath destroyed those who disobeyed prophets, so that future generations and other nations would learn of their fate and avoid following their example. Whether or not people followed past prophets, Allah (SWT) completed His guidance to humanity through His Final Prophet (Peace be upon them).

His Final Prophet (Peace be upon them) completed the divine guidance. He was to be successful and fulfill his duties, and his nation would completely surrender to the will of Allah (SWT). His teachings would last forever. His people, language, holy book (Qur’an), teachings/practices and sacred words would be preserved forever and would become the beacon of light and guidance for all humanity until the end of time. He is no other than Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), whose book is the holy Qur’an, whose teachings are Islam, and whose followers are Muslims, He testified to past prophets, recognized the authenticity of their revealed scriptures, eradicated shirk, and now forever rules over the hearts of his followers, leader of all prophets.

Islam recognises every prophet. In fact, denying or disrespecting any one of them is un-Islamic, because they are all Allah’s prophets. All are dear to Muslims. Some among them are Adam (A.S), Idress  (A.S; Possibly the same as Enoch), Nuh (Noah; A.S), Hud (A.S), Saleh (A.S) Ibrahim (Abraham; A.S ), Isma’il (Ishmael; A.S), Is-haaq (Isaac; A.S), Yaqoob (Jacob; A.S), Yusuf (Joseph; A.S), Ayyoub (Job; A.S), Shu’aib (A.S), Musa (Moses; A.S), Harun (Aaron; A.S), Lut (Lot; A.S), Yunus (Jonah; A.S), Al-Ya’sa (Elisha; A.S), Zulkifl (Ezekiel; A.S), Dawud (David; A.S), Sulayman (Solomon; A.S), Ilyas (Elijah; A.S), Zakaria (Zachariah; A.S), Yahya (John the Baptist; A.S), Isa (Jesus; A.S), and the ‘Seal of the Prophethood,’ Muhammad (Peace be upon them). They are to be honored, loved, remembered, and respected to the extent that, when saying or writing their names, Muslims must attache proper attributes and salutations next to their names, such as shown above.

The prophets’ main purpose was not to teach us what we could learn on our own, but what we could never comprehend by ourselves. When our intellect fails, the prophets’ teachings take charge. When our reasoning comes to a dead end, the prophets’ wisdom opens new dimensions for us to proceed forward. When our faculties fail, their teachings rescue us from the darkness of failure. Whenever we are in need of a model or an ideal, the best resource is Allah’s (SWT) prophets, who are the best models and icons of wisdom.

The holy prophet came to connect us to the Creator, since we could not do it on the basis of our limited intellect. They came to tell us who the Lord is, since we could not fully know by ourselves. They came to reach us how to please the Lord because we could not find this out without the Lord telling us through them. They came to show us how to worship the Lord because we could not develop the system of worship by which the Lord could truly be pleased. They came to declare the Oneness of the Lord and stop us from committing shirk because we could not have come to believe in one Lord by ourselves. The prophets came to warn us about the Day of Judgment and the trials of that Day because by the time we would have figured it out on our own, it might have been too late for us.

The prophets informed us about halal and haram (Permitted and forbidden), good and bad, virtues and sins, benefits and harm, rights and duties; and all other prescriptions and proscriptions. On our own, we would have reversed the entire system of life, misunderstood the whole idea of existence, misused the bounties of Allah (SWT), increased our spiritual diseases, put in place improper justice systems, and failed an achieve the ultimate success of the Hereafter. We needed help from the Lord, which came through His prophets.

The prophets did not come to teach us how to build skyscrapers, but to find peace and prosperity within simplicity. They did not come to show us techniques on becoming millionaires, but how to love our fellow human beings and share our wealth. They did not come to teach us how to make airplanes, but to uplift the suffering humanity. They did not come to give us ideas on how to explore outer space, but how to explore our inner self and discover Allah’s (SWT) great Workmanship.

None of what we could have learned, invented, explored, designed, manufactured, thought of, formulated, and discovered by ourselves was on the agenda of any prophet. Eventually, we would naturally do these things as the need arose, and human history is witness that we did.

Rather, the prophets informed us well in advance of whatever we were incapable of finding out on our own. They fulfilled their duty of guiding people, and they are not responsible for anything beyond that. They will not be questioned for our wrongdoings, bear the burden of our mistakes , and suffer for our kufr (Infidelity), shirk (Polytheism), and deviation from the righteous path. They are already the chosen ones, the rewarded ones, and the blessed ones. They have done the job well and have nothing to lose.


   This post is in a series of many to come on the topic of Islam from a Sufi Perspective. More articles are to follow. Please follow in the Category : Islam as a Sufi Perspective.

Allah (SWT) Loves His Creations.

Allah (SWT) created everything in the best manner and according to its purpose. Each creature lives by natural rules and plays specific roles set forth by Allah (SWT). As such, He provided creatures with everything necessary to fulfill their purpose. Since human beings have a higher purpose, He endowed them with free will, intelligence, morality, common sense, etc., and He created them in His own image. To be created in His image does not mean that He looks like man, but that humans have been endowed with His qualities in accordance with their capacity and ability [Qur’an 30:30]. No other creature has been bestowed with this honor. How can all this be devoid of Love?

WE apparently love what we make with our won hands, even though we are not creators of anythings. We simply put together what is provided to us as raw material by Him. Since we love what we make, He must love us more, because He made us the best among His creatures.  How is it possible for us to achieve the purpose of our life without His caring and love?

In the very beginning of the Holy Qur’an, Allah (SWT) reveals Himself as Ar-Rahman ‘the Most Compassionate’ and Ar-Rahim ‘the Most Merciful.’ How can He be compassionate and merciful without love? He could have chosen his other attributes at this place to introduce Himself, but He chose Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim precisely to show His love and mercy.

Since we are His creatures, however much love we need from Him comes unconditionally. We do not have to do anything special to receive this love;everyone gets it equally. When we require more love and compassion from Him, we have to go out of our way and beseech His mercy, and then work hard and strive to become eligible for it.  Certainly, our Lord is full of love for His creations. Besides being beneficent, Compassionate, Merciful, He is Al-Wadud, The Most-Loving. Many other attributes of our Almighty Lord also reflect His love for us .

He knew definitely that in this world we would commit sins, therefore, in the holy Qur’an He says:

And ask for forgiveness from your Lord; then bow down towards Him; without a doubt my Lord is truly Forgiving and profoundly Loving. [Qur’an 11:90]

When He warns us, it is to our own benefit. When He mentions His absolute power and comprehensive majesty, He simultaneously reveals Himself to profoundly love all of His creatures. Although He has power to do anything He wills, He prefers to love us. He reveals in the Qur’an:

Without a doubt your Lord’s hold is quite severe. Without a doubt, He creates the first time and He is to do it the second time around. And He is All-forgiving and Most-Loving, the owner of the magnificent Throne; the Doer of whatever He wills. [Qur’an 85:12-16]


The Qur’an also tells us that Allah (SWT) loves:

  • Those who do good [Qur’an 2:195 & 3:148],
  • The Repentant and the pure [Qur’an 2:222],
  • Those who are mindful (of Him) [Qur’an 3:76],
  • Those who love Him and follow Prophet Muhammed (Peace be upon them) [Qur’an 3:31],
  • Those who are good [Qur’an 3:134; 5:13; 5:93],
  • Those who Patiently persevere [Qur’an 3:146],
  • Those who trust in Him [Qur’an 3:159],
  • Fair judges [Qur’an 5:42],
  • Those who are mindful (of their obligations) [Qur’an 9:4 & 9:7],
  • Those who make themselves pure [Qur’an 9:108],
  • Those who believe and do what is morally right [Qur’an 19:96],
  • Those who are evenhanded [Qur’an 49:9],
  • The tolerant [Qur’an 60:8], and
  • Those who fight in His cause in tight formations [Qur’an 61:4]

In addition to these Qur’anic testimonials to Allah’s (SWT) love for us, numerous sayings of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) bear witness that Allah (SWT) loves us.

The prophet of Allah said: “Allah, the blessed and exalted, said: ‘My love is obliged for those who love each other in Me, and those who sit with each other in Me, and those who visit each other in Me, and those who give to each other generously in Me.” [Al-Muwatta of Imam Malik, hadith #15.51]

The prophet said that Allah Himself said, “My servant draws closer to Me through the religious duties I placed upon him. My servant then continues to draw closer to Me with voluntary (Good actions) until I love him. When I love him, I become his ears that he uses to hear, his eyes that he uses to see,his hands that he uses to hold and his feet that he uses for walking. If he then asks Me for anything. I would surely grant it to him, and when he asks for My protection, I will surely give it to him…”    [Hadith-e-Qudsi]

Still further, Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) informed us that Allah (SWT) loves those who practice abstinence in the world and those who are Allah-Conscious, free from want, and hidden from the view of people.

A man came and said: “O Prophet of Allah, direct me to a deed for which I shall be loved by Allah & by people when I have done it.” He replied: “If you practice abstinence in the world, Allah will Love you, and if you abstain from people’s possessions, people will love you. ” [ Al-Tirmidhi, hadith #1350; also transmitted by Ibn Majah]

Allah’s prophet said: “Allah loves the servant who is Allah-conscious and is free from want and his hidden (from the view of people). ” [Muslim, hadith #1384]

The message of Allah’s (SWT) love that is to be found in Islam, both in the Qur’an and in the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), is clear and unmistakable. Allah (SWT) is The Loving, full of loving tenderness. He is The Most Compassionate, enveloping us in a womb-like protection and throwing out to us a rope of salvation whenever we start to stray. He is The Most Merciful, full of mercy to the believers, merciful to all people, and His mercy extends over all things.

On the Day of Resurrection, His mercy to His servants will be 99 times that of all the mercy that all of creation has ever shown to each other. He is also The forgiving, and He loves to forgive us and He will continue to forgive us as long as we ask for forgiveness and repent sincerely. He is ever ready to run towards us if we will just take a few steps towards Him. This is the Islamic concept of Allah.

Allah (SWT) naturally endowed us with common sense and other qualities to find, connect, and relate to Him and to worship Him, It would be quite difficult had He not done that for us. He helped us and saved us from the hassle and pain of trying to discover Him ourselves. This is another sign of His love for us.

Allah (SWT) sent prophets, one after another, to rightly guide and teach us how to work towards achieving ultimate success. He revealed a complete system of life through divine books, so we can know what is good and bad for us in this life and in the Hereafter. He equipped us with every faculty necessary to explore, know, and utilize His bounties in order to be thankful to Him and to achieve the purpose of this life.

He created love and affection in us so that, for example, parents can raise their children, children can care for their parents, husbands and wives can live happy, peaceful and productive lives, and other happy relationships could be established.

Nothing could be possible without His love. Now, that love requires us to understand our Master, to know Him, to properly follow His guidance, to recognize His being, to worship Him properly for His pleasure, and to thank Him for what He has granted us and what He ultimately wishes to give us: success in the Hereafter.

Where else do we find a Lord Who rewards us for treating ourselves well? Before requiring us to fulfill our obligations to Him, He directs us to fulfill our duties to each other. When true believers fulfill their duties to other humans beings for His pleasure, He considers it worship of Himself and fully rewards them, too.  Even the activities that are part of direct worship bring unlimited benefits to the worshiper and not to Allah (SWT). Where else do we find such a Lord? Nowhere, but He himself is the One and Only.

The ‘lords,’ ‘masters,’ and ‘bosses’ of this world demand personal service and favours before doing favours for us, but not the Lord of all lords. He is there to give and does not take anything in return for Himself. That Lord is compassionate, Merciful, and Just. Islam requires its followers to invite other to Allah (SWT) and to His way. It wants people to recognize that fact, so they too can become His true servants and work their way to success, the ultimate success.

Since it is human nature to attempt to perceive the Supreme Being, people ask numerous questions regarding His form and being. The following should give a well rounded idea and understating of Allah (SWT) the Almighty Lord.


Q&A About Allah (SWT)

  1. What is the Gender of Allah (SWT)?

Gender is for creatures, not for the Creator. Allah (SWT) is free from any gender category or other classification. He is not like us or like any of His creations. Allah (SWT) is not male or female. He is the Supreme Being, above and beyond any gender categories. When we use a pronoun in place of Allah (SWT), we use a masculine pronoun not to show that he is male, but as He Himself used it in the divinely revealed books.


      2.  Does Allah (SWT) know our actions before or after they occur?

One of Allah’s (SWT) attributes is the All-Knower. He knows whatever is taking place and whatever will take place in the future, including our actions and our intentions. His infinite knowledge covers everything from the beginning to the end, and even that which is certainly beyond our conception.


      3. Can we see Allah (SWT)?

We are not given the power to see Him. If we could see Him, everyone would have automatically believed  in His existence, and the whole purpose of having faith would have been invalidated. On the Day of Judgment, only the ‘Successful Ones’ will be able to see the Lord, and it will be a great disappointment and unimaginably painful for the faithless, the losers, not to be able to see Him, even on that day. So close, yet so far!


       4. How do you know if he is please with any of our actions?

When we perform an action, a good deed, with the pure intent of pleasing Him and as per His instructions, we should have unshakeable belief that Allah (SWT) is pleased with our action. The true satisfaction of heart and mind and an unexplained contentment and joy felt within the soul indicate acceptance of that good deed and that it has earned the pleasue of Allah (SWT). For example, a simple smile on our parents face, a thumbs-up gesture from our coach, or a handshake with our boss is a sign of contentment and joyful victory. An indication of Allah’s (SWT) acceptance of our good deeds is felt within our soul and shows up brightly on our faces.

         5. What difference does the belief in the ‘Oneness of Allah’ (SWT) make in Muslims?

Belief in the Oneness of Allah (SWT) causes undivided attention towards the Supreme Being when: submitting to His will, performing the acts of direct worship, following His commands, maintaining a spiritual connection, and being fearful being accountable. This belief clears away confusion and satisfies the soul. It assures us that there is only one place form where we can find help, justice, and the fulfillment of our desires, It provides strength, confidence, a sense of belonging,peace of heart, mind and soul, hope, dignity, and unshakeable belief.

Since Allah (SWT) is One, His message and guidance must also be one. The way of life prescribed by Him is also one. The unity of Allah (SWT) brings unity to all, and the powerful energy that radiates is immense. The Unity of Allah is perfection, and anyone who comes close to this perfection finds absolute satisfaction.


      6. Why does Allah (SWT) not have children?

The short and simple answer is that Allah (SWT) does not need children, but this short and simple answer may not be satisfactory to all, so I will elaborate further.

Having children is naturally a sign of weakness and ultimate recognition that a father/mother will eventually die and children will take over. A human father is naturally weak and eventually requires the help of a child to remain strong. A child fulfills the needs of his father who may suffer from many inherent deficiencies, or if a father is rich he needs a child to inherit his wealth and prolong his name or business. All these are sings of weaknesses.

However, Allah (SWT) is not weak, and He thus does not need children, All of His attributes are clear proof to that effect. According to the biological process of reproduction, a male requires a female to have children. Allah (SWT) has never taken a female companion; therefore, He does not have children.

This post is in series of many to come on the topic of Islam from a Sufi Perspective. More articles are to follow. Please follow in the Category : Islam as a Sufi Perspective.

TAWHID: The Oneness of Allah

The Belief in the Oneness of Allah (SWT)  is central to Islam, & all other beliefs revolve around it [it]. However, it is not simply a matter of belief, but of firm conviction. Even though Allah (SWT) is hidden & invisible to the naked eye, He is clearly visible to positive reasoning and common sense. Wherever we look and explore, we find a unified system and an immaculate work of definite calculations and precise movements. Allah’s art of creation cannot be the work of more than one Lord, more than one Supreme Being. He has to be one; otherwise, there would bound to be a clash in the universal systems. There could not be natural symmetry, balance, and the existing fundamental similarities among creatures if there were more than one creator.  Even human nature could have been divided and be concretely different in its most fundamental aspects, but since this is not the case, it shows that the Creator is one. If there were more than one god, various creatures, systems of life, and the very nature of humans would not only be very different, it would be impossible to coexist fro even a moment.

The more they try to disapprove His existence, the more they end up confirming it.


That is why all religions throughout human history, in one form or another, teach of one Supreme Being, one great God, even when some of them believe in lesser gods, and goddesses. Experience shows that even people who claim to believe in no god, deep down in their hearts, believe that this phenomenal universe must be the work of a Supreme Being.

Every field of science seems to accept that this universe and everything in it are a creation of some supreme and powerful being, and the results of their research point in this same direction, i.e., there is supreme being. Some, intentionally or unintentionally, in their attempt to disprove the existence of a supreme being, ironically end up proving its existence or at least fail to deny its existence concretely. The more they try to disprove His existence, the more they end up confirming it.

Humans are naturally connected to the Creator. Hence, no matter how much they have forgotten Him, they still call on him, especially when in need of help and when no else can help. They submit to Him whenever their power and intelligence fail and return to Him when there is no other place to go and no one else for whom to look or to whom to turn. This and many other experiences of daily life truly indicate that a mighty Lord exists and that He is one and cannot be more than one. Every divine revelation professes this unity, as do all of our natural faculties.


It is not just a matter of belief; it is a matter of fact that when we willfully and verbally declare the ‘Oneness of Allah’ (SWT) and recognise/ certify it by heart, we declare the truth and prepare to enter into Islam and return “home.” In Islam, tawhid (The Oneness of Allah SWT) is the centre of the Islamic belief system. The opposite of tawhid is Shirk. Shirk is not a forgivable sin,but it is forgiven only if Allah’s Oneness is embraced, along with the rest of Islam in its entirety. The heavenly guidance from Allah (SWT) that no one should commit shirk is clear, complete, and convincing, Thus, according to Islam, there is no other place for a mushrik (One who commits shirk), but eternal Hell.

The concept of tawhid is that Allah (SWT) is one and has no partners. Shirk is to associate an idol or human with Allah’s being and to relate someone or something with Allah as His partner, parent, son or daughter, to consider someone equal in power and in attributes or to believe someone has the personal power or ability to interfere or intercede in Allah’s will or in His work.

The main purpose of every prophet from Adam (A.S)  to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), the Final Prophet, including but not limited to Nuh (Noah) (A.S), Ibrahim (Abraham) (A.S), Dawud (David) (A.S), Saleh (A.S), Musa (Moses) (A.S), and Isa (Jesus) (A.S), was to prevent their people from committing shirk (polytheism). They called upon their people to declare the tawhid (Oneness of Allah -SWT), to condemn shirk and to abandon the worship of anything else beside Allah (SWT). In light of the prophets’ sacrifices, hard work, proselytizing under adverse conditions, and teaching people about Allah (SWT)  and His Oneness, every punishment from the Lord is justified for those who continued to commit shirk.  Even today this is a matter for real concern and man must refrain from shirk, if he does not want to become the ultimate loser.

The clear, divine revelations about the Oneness of the Lord and those revelations denying the existence of any other god clearly conclude that none is worthy of worship besides Allah (S.W.T), the Omniscient and Omnipotent Lord. To worship anyone besides Allah (SWT) is another form of shirk. Muslims do not worship any prophet or associate prophets in Allah’s worship in any way, Although the prophets are all chosen men,  some are closer to Allah (S.W.T) than others, and Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) is the most beloved.

Prophets, angels, saints, and others are to be loved, honored, respected, and remembered, but not worshiped. Worship is due exclusively for Allah (SWT) .

Islam, as taught by the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), sums up the description of the Almighty. Allah (SWT) is the Lord, the Creator, the Omnipotent, the Omniscient, the Omnipresent, the Sustainer, and providence is only from Him. Only Allah (SWT) is Eternal. He gives life and takes it away, forgives sins and punishes wrongdoers; He is All-Knowing, and nothing is hidden from Him. Therefore, Allah (S.W.T) is the only one worthy of worship.

This post is in series of many to come on the topic of Islam from a Sufi Perspective. More articles are to follow. Please follow in the Category : Islam as a Sufi Perspective.

ALLAH!- The Lord Almighty

99 Names of Allah




Who is Allah?

S.W.T  ( refer to: Subhanahu wa ta’ala, Arabic for “May He be glorified and exalted”).

‘Allah’ (Swt) is the proper and personal name of the Almighty, the Lord and Creator, Who created the universe and everything in it, including us human beings. The Lord, the Almighty, was not named ‘Allah’ (Swt) by any human being or by any Muslim. He introduced Himself to us by this name,  ‘Allah’ (Swt). The first verse of the holy Qur’an and the first Cardinal Article of faith testify to this.



Bismillah Hir-rahma Nir-rahim

In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful.

Note: Muslims recite this whenever they begin to do anything and everything. They invoke the name ‘Allah’ (Swt) to include His blessing, mercy, and assistance with what they undertake, whether it is major or minor, thereby, avoiding the interference of Satan and his evil doings. This bears witness that ‘Allah’ (Swt) is His proper name.


AlhamdulillahAl- Hamdu- Lillahi Rabbil-Alamin

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.

Note: This is the first verse of the first surah (Chapter) namely Surah-e-Fathia ( The opening Chapter), with which the holy Qur’an begins. Here, the Almighty introduces Himself to us as ‘Allah’ (Swt).

La ilaha illallahu, Muhammadur Rasulullah

La ilaha illallahu, Muhammadur Rasulullah

“[There is] no deity but ALLAH, Muhammad is the prophet of Allah”

Note: To remain faithful (Muslims) or to enter into Islam, one must verbally declare this Kalimah (Decalration) of faith, certify it by heart, and have unshakeable belief in its truthfulness.

Countless other verses Show that  ‘Allah’ (Swt) is His proper name as He Himself revealed it to us.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) also revealed that He has many attributes or qualities, which are known as the 99 Beautiful Names of  ‘Allah’ (Swt). We should call Him either by His proper name  ‘Allah’ (Swt) or by any of His attributive names. Since  ‘Allah’ (Swt) is the name of his personal being and comprises all the meaning of this attributes, it is preferable to call Him  ‘Allah’ (Swt). Simply uttering  ‘Allah’ (Swt) brings many blessings and bring you closer to Him.

‘Allah’ (Swt) revealed to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), ” I was a hidden treasure and willed to be manifest, so I created what I created” [Shamaa’il Tirmidhi]. He alone created everything and everyone.  To begin the process of creation  ‘Allah’ (Swt) first created the nur ( Light) of Muhammad from within his nur (Al Mawahibu’l-Ladunniyah].  ‘Allah’ (Swt) created angles from the nur as well. The Jinns were created from fire, and Shaytan  (Satan)  belongs to this category.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) created man from earthly soil, and science confirms that the elements found in the human body are also found in in earth.

Unlike the birth of other humans,the creation of Adam, Hawwa and of Isa (Jesus)(A.S), as explained before, are all signs of ‘Allah’s (Swt) power of creation.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) blessed Maryam (Mary) (A.S) and miraculously bestowed on her a son, Prophet Isa (Jesus)(A.S) without a father. This miraculous birth does not make Isa (A.S) His Son, nor does it make  ‘Allah’ (Swt) his father.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) is Wahid (Single and alone), and everything else is His creation that serves Him, surrenders to Him, and worships Him.

Allah (Swt) is free from parents and did not choose to have children. He has no partner who shares His being or His power.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) is alone; He is One. Never did He beget, nor was He begotten. None is like Him, and He is not like anyone or anything. No one is equal to Him. No one interferes with Him or with His works. He does whatever He wills. His plans and words are unchangeable.  No one questions Him, and He is not answerable to anyone.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) gives life and causes death at its fixed moment.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) causes clouds to release water, wherever and whenever He wills.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) merges the day into night and from the night brings out day. He set in motion celestial bodies that constantly travel on their fixed path for a fixed period.


He is the All-Knower, Not a single leaf falls on the ground that escapes His knowledge. He knows the needs of His creatures very well. He provides for all and nourishes all, and no being is left out from His provisions, no matter where they are, whether that is beneath the earth, deep in the seas, high above the skies, or in places we cannot even imagine. Besides humans and Jinns, none of His creations have free will. They all submit to Him; they all worship Him (In their own ways ) and are busy in His remembrance.

Only humans and jinns are given the unique ‘power of choice’ to choose between the righteous path and the deviant one.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) is merciful and does not take vengeance for His personal sake, but only to make right or for the sake of justice.  ‘Allah’ (Swt) does not destroy any nation until He brings upon them His divine message and warnings and gives them ample time to follow and submit. No creature is able to see Him’ yet, He sees all. Humans are not given the power to see Him or the intelligence to conceive of Him, except through his divine message and guidance.  What has been said above it but a summary of His introduction of Himself. To develop a better understanding, I quote the following from the holy Qur’an regarding  ‘Allah’ (Swt) being.


 Say you (O my Prophet!), “He is Allah, the One,” Allah , the Independent (but) on Whom all depend. He did not beget, nor was He begotten- NOR IS THERE ANYONE EQUAL TO him.” [QUR’AN 112:1-4]


The following is a tafsir (Explanation) of a very famous verse, called Aayat-ul-Kursi (aayat-verse, kursi-throne). The Words in parentheses and boldface are translations of the Qur’anic Arabic embedded within this unique explanation.


AAYAT-UL-KURSI [Qur’an 2:255]


Ayat Ul kursi


(Allah) Almighty is Self-Existing, Self-sustaining. He has existed for eternity, is the embodiment of all and every outstanding quality, is free of all blemishes, alone is worthy of worship and (none) is ( worthy of worship except Him) who has always remained (alive by Himself), is not in need of or reliant on anyone and will remain alive and in existence forever.

He will never experience death and is Self-Sufficient and is (for everyone),for the entire universe (the Sustainer) and He alone is responsible for the universes’ affairs. . And (He does not feel drowsy) which is the precursor to sleep because He never experiences tiredness or drowsiness, and therefore is also free from in-activeness which is result of being tired or drowsy.

(And) similarly (nor) does He (sleep) because while asleep the nerves of the mind are relaxed after which knowledge and comprehension are rendered ineffective and become suspended, and the alertness and intelligence of sense become diminished. And it is clear that for Allah Almighty these characteristics are impossible because He is the Inventor of this great universe and is responsible for maintaining its affairs at every moment and every second, as there are changes happening at all times, that are occurring under His attention and with His knowledge. He is aware at all times of all things in their condition and is neither unaware nor asleep.

(It is His and belongs to Him all that which is in the skies and on the Earth); all the creation in the skies and on Earth are His subjects and His property, and everything is submissive to His power and wish. (And who is it that intercedes) for anyone (in His court except by His order). Allah Almighty’s greatness, high rank, and majestic attributes mean that without His permission no one can intercede in His presence.

Allah Almighty (is aware) of ( everything that is in) the past of those who live in the skies and on Earth and that which (has gone before), that is, all that which has occurred in the world’s affairs, (and ) knows (everything that is to come) in the future. Therefore, Allah Almighty is aware of both their past and future, (and ) those of this universe (cannot encircle) or enclose (any-thing) that is (in His knowledge) and which He is aware of (except by His own will). In summary, leave alone the knowledge of the entire universe, a tiny iota of Allah Almighty’s vast knowledge is too difficult for a human to comprehend. Creatures only have the knowledge that is given to them by Him.

(Permission has been given by His throne), that is, His knowledge…or His greatness. or His power and ownership..or by His magnificent, powerful, everlasting, and immense creations that are below His kingdom but above the skies and his known as His throne; or whose reality no one except Allah Almighty is aware of, whether in (the skies on on Earth). In other words, His knowledge, His magnificence, power, and wisdom or His beautiful, gracious, and magnificent creations who have encircled the skies and the Earth and whose compound has within it the  skies and Earth, and which (He finds no difficulty keeping watch on both). Watching over the well-being of the Earth and skies does tire Allah Almighty, but in fact this caring is simple and very easy for Him. He is the Sustainer and Caretaker of all things, He does what He wills, His intention is firm, and that which He intends, He definitely makes it happen.

And why should not this be so because He is dominant and overpowering over all things, and (He is) above all matters (mighty and superior), magnificent, and exalted in His recognition, and this one revealed verse known and recognized as Aayat-ul-Kursi is more elevated and greater that any other verse of the Qur’an.

In the following verse, Allah (Swt) describes Himself through a metaphor of blessed light.


Allah is the light of the heavens and the Earth. The likeness of His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp; that lamp is in (a chandelier of) glass; the chandelier is as a star glittering like a pearl, lit from a blessed olive tree, neither eastern nor western, whose oil is most luminous, even though no fire touches it. (This) is all light upon light! Allah guides unto his light whom he wills…[Qur’an 24:35]

He is Allah, besides Whom there is none to be worshiped, knower of everything hidden and open. It is He the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. He is Allah besides Whom there is none to be worshiped, the Sovereign of all, the Most Holy, the Bestower of Peace, the Giver of security, the guardian over all, the Esteemed Once, the Mender of broken hearts, the Exalted in might. Glory be to Allah, He is far above what they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator of all, the Maker of all, the Fashioner of all. His are the most Beautiful Names. Whatever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him, and it is He , the All Powerful, the All-Wise. [Qur’an 59:22-24]


This post is in series of many to come on the topic of Islam from a Sufi Perspective. More articles are to follow. Please follow in the Category : Islam as a Sufi Perspective.

Early days of the Prophet in Makkah


Some Important facts about the history of Islam from the time of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) are mentioned below to increase the reader’s knowledge.

Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) were born 571 C.E. in Makkah, Arabia. His father’s name was Abdullah, and his mother was Amina.

His father passed away before his birth, and his mother passed away when he was six years old. His grandfather then became his caretaker.  Upon his Grandfather’s death, when he was about eight years old, his uncle Abu Talib lovingly cared for him for a long time. His genealogy is traced back to Prophet Ismail (A.S), the first son of Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (A.S) There are no other prophets amongst the descendants of Ismail (A.S) except Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), while many great and distinguished prophets descended from Prophet Is-haq (Isaac) (A.S) the second son of Ibrahim (A.S).

Prophet Muhammad’s uncle, Abu Talib, witnessing special qualities and characteristics in him, took extra care in his upbringing. He never left him home alone, even when going away on business trips. His uncle never forced him to worship idols, even though the majority of Arabs were idolaters. Just within the confines of the Ka’ba in Makkah, three hundred and sixty different idols were stored and worshiped. Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) never went near idols to worship them, even in his childhood.  He truly hated idol-worship.

Having acquired experience in trade in the company of his uncle and after a few business trips abroad, Muhammad (Peace be upon them) earned respect for his unparalleled honesty and integrity, as well as for his extra ordinary demeanor, Makkans, witnessing his high moral character, awarded him the title of ‘Sadiq’ (Truthful) and ‘Ameen’ (Trustworthy).

On one occasion, he took abroad a merchant caravan of a wealthy Makkan lady, Khadija (R.A) and earned extraordinary profits for her goods. Upon hearing of his honesty, ethics, and the entire account of his trip from her slave who accompanied Prophet Muhammad ( Peace be upon them) she sent him a marriage proposal.

Through arrangements made by his uncle, Abu Talib he was married at the age of twenty- five to the Honorable Khadija (R.A) who was forty years old and a widow. Contrary to the belief of many, he did not marry her for any selfish reasons or utilize her wealth to achieve his goals. Moreover, her wealth was not a factor in declaring his prophet-hood, which came fifteen years later, when he was forty years old. Nevertheless, it did allow him much free time to meditate and remain secluded in a cave on a nearby mountaintop. His wife was always supportive of him and stood by him all the time. When Muhammad (Peace be upon him) declared his prophet hood, she, with full confidence,became the first person and woman to recognize him as the prophet of Allah, and she wholeheartedly embraced Islam.

While he was meditating in the cave known as Hira, Allah revealed the first few verses of the holy Qur’an through the Archangel Jibra’il (A.S). In those verses, Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them) was commanded to:

    Recite! In the name of your Lord, Who created all. Created man from the clot of congealed blood. * Recite! And your Lord is the Most Bountiful. * Who taught writing by the pen.  *Taught man what he knew not…*[Qur’an 96:1-5]

Later Allah Commanded Muhammad (Peace be upon them) to begin calling people to Islam, and Allah promised to protect him and to make him succeed in his mission. Although he faced resistance from the same people who called him Sadiq and Ameen, he continued to convey the message as revealed to him by Allah with confidence, dedication,and commitment. Muhammad (Peace be upon him) called upon his people to recognise the Oneness of Allah and to give up the centuries old worship of Idols.

To the tribe of Quraysh, idol worship was not only ritual, but it was also a profitable business opportunity, as they earned much income from pilgrims coming to Makkah to worship idols and to buy and sell goods.  Thus, the need to resist the Prophet and his teachings was obvious.

Initially, only a handful of people joined him, but with steadfastness and determination he continued to preach even under the harshest conditions. Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon them), his extended family (Some of whom had not yet embraced Islam), and the new Muslims were subject to economic and social boycott and were forced to leave their homes for nearby valley, Shaib abi-Talib. They lived there for three years under severe circumstances; however, this did not weaken their resolve. The economic and trade sanctions against them were lifted when termites chewed up the document of sanctions drawn up by the Quraysh. This event brought shame to the Quraysh, for misbehaving with their own community members.



Meanwhile, the Muslim community slowly increased and strengthened even as the resistance and savagery of the non-believers became widespread.  Those believers who could not persist were ordered by the Prophet , to migrate to Abyssinia (Contemporary Ethiopia). Muslims met with favourable conditions there and earned the favour and compassion of the Christian King Al Najashi, who on learning abut Islam and its Prophet, recognized the divinity of Islam, as Allah had revealed it previously to Prophet Isa (Jeasus) (A.S).


The Muslims who remained in Makkah Continued to suffer pain and hardship at the hands of the disbelievers. Soon after, a year of grief came upon the Prophet (Peace be upon them), as two of his great supporters and family members, his wife Khadija (R.A) and his uncle Abu Talib passed away, making his task harder. Now, his life was in greater danger from the Makkan chiefs, because they had  feared and respected Abu Talib. Upon his death, all the Makkan chiefs united to prevent the Prophet (Peace be upon him) from continuing with his mission, even if they had to take his life.

It was within this period of grief and hardship that the Prophet was summoned to meet Allah in the heavens. This Journey, known as Isra wal Mi’raj took place within a very short period of the night.  In the company of the Angel Jira’il (A.S), he first visited Masjid-e-Aqsa in Baitul Muqaddas (Jerusalem) and then ascended to the Heavens.  Among other things, the purpose of this miraculous journey were to bring him relief, uplift his morale, strengthen his resolve,show him the heavens, and make him an eyewitness to Allah’s signs and majesty, and give him the honor of meeting Allah in person, which was not given to any other prophet.  There, he was assured of his prophetic success and was given the gift of Salah ( The five daily prayers of worship), which every adult Muslim is obliged to practice.

Resisting the abuse and persecution of the Quraysh had now become unbearable, and thus the Prophet permitted more of his followers to migrate to Madinah, a city some four hundred Kilometers northeast of Makkah, where he would join them in the near future when commanded my Allah (S.W.T). Muslims making their way safely out of Makkah angered the disbelievers who then increased their persecution. The Makkan chiefs unanimously decided to attack the Prophet (Peace be upon them) in his sleep, but Allah (S.W.T) informed the Prophet (Peace be upon them) and granted him permission to migrate. The Prophet (Peace be upon them) left for Madinah, leaving his cousin, Ali (Karam Allah Wajhu), who would later become his Son-in-Law, in charge of his affairs and directed him to sleep in his place that night and then to join him in Madinah at a later time.

He travelled with the Honorable Abu-Bakr Siddiq (R.A), his closest companion and the first adult male to embrace Islam. The Makkans followed after them but could not reach them. After travelling for about five hundred Kilometres in the excruciating desert heat for fifteen days, they safely arrived in Madinah,where many anxiously awaited him. Out of their respect and honor for him,he was greeted with a grand celebration. This Hijra (Migration of the Prophet) marked the beginning of the Islamic Lunar calendar and the second phase of Islam.

In Madinah, the Prophet Established a common brotherhood among the believers: Between the Ansar, the Muslim residents of Madinah, and the Muhajireen, the migrant Muslims. He drew up treaties with local tribes and with the followers of the Jewish faith to coexist in peace and harmony, with toleration and understanding.  With a sigh of relief, he established the Muslim community on the solid foundations of Islam, according to the continuous revelations from Allah (S.W.T). The Muslim community grew and prospred due to the hard labour of the migrants and with the unprecedented cooperation and show of selflessness of their Ansar brethren. The holy Prophet Established a masjid in Madinah to be the centre for this newly formed nation of believers.

On the other hand, the Makkans were in despair at having failed to destroy a handful of poor and disadvantaged people, but, unbeknownst to them, Muslims were truly blessed by the Almighty, Who allowed them to succeed, become strong, sustain themselves, and disseminate Islam throughout Arabia.  The Makkans ran amok and looted the belongings and properties the emigrants left behind. They conspired with the local tribes of Madinah to weaken the Muslims.   They Sought alliances to wage war against Islam and Muslims. Although the Muslims had left the city of Makkah, the Makkans never let the Muslims live in peace in Madinah,  and they never left the Muslims alone to practice their religion.

After almost fifteen years of suffering persecution at the hands of the Quraysh, Allah (S.W.T) finally granted Muslims permission to defend themselves and fight back against the enemies. Many small and full scale battles were fought where Muslims, though outnumbered,were overall victorious.  At this point, both parties were ready to sign a peace treaty and agreed to ten years of peace. This period of peace gave Muslims a chance to focus on other matters, such as strengthening themselves to deal with other tribes and powers in Arabia and to take Islam beyond the Arabian borders.

The relative peace allowed Muhammed (Pece be upon them) to send letters via emissaries inviting the Roman, Persian, and other emperors to adopt Islam . He was also able to deal extensively with the hidden mischief of the hypocrites living among the Muslims. As Islam continued to grow and gain strength,every existing empire became aware of it. Moreover, the revelations of the holy Qur’an accelerated. Uniform codes of conduct, family life, personal and public affairs, economy and social welfare, civil and criminal justice, and conducting war and establishing peace were revealed to Muslims. Simultaneously, the Prophet (Peace be upon them) appropriately implemented divine laws among the Muslim community of Madinah and throughout the nearby lands.

When the Makkans and their allies breached the Treaty of Hudaibiya ,the Muslims prepared to march towards Makkah. They then conquered Makkah without spilling a drop of blood. Muhammad (Peace be upon them) become a conqueror, but being a prophet of mercy, he forgave all Makkans, even his staunchest enemies. He issued a general amnesty and pardoned everyone whether they embraced Islam or not. Allah (S.W.T) promise to His Prophet (Peace be upon them) and the Muslims came true. They entered Makkah as victors, when just ten years before they had been forced to leave their homes, belongings, and everything they had in order to find refuge so they could uphold their beliefs and for the love of their Prophet (Peace be upon them).

Muhammad (Peace be upon them) showed unequivocal generosity that has yet to be duplicated. As a result, tens of thousands embraced Islam without any swords raised, without fear of death, without any killings, and without any compulsion. Those who were willing to give up anything to destroy Islam now became its defenders and joined other Muslims in spreading the message of Islam form Makkah and Madinah to every corner of the world.

The prophet returned to Madina to remain there for the rest of his life among those who once did him great favours, the Ansar. Soon thereafter, the holy Qur’an was completed when at the Last Sermon, on the occasion of Hajj, Allah (S.W.T) revealed to Muhammad (Peace be upon them) that,

…. this day, I have perfected for you, your religion and have completed My favor to you and I have approved Islam as the religion for you…[Qur’an 5:3]

The prophet passed away at the age of 63, leaving the responsibility of taking Islam to every corner of the world to his Companions and to subsequent generations of Muslims. Abu-Bakr Siddiq (R.A) became the first Khalifa (Caliph) of the Muslim ummah (Community). The Holy Qur’an and the holy Sunnah (the way of the Prophet peace be upon them) became the beacon of light for the Muslim ummah.

Centuries later, Islam still shines brightly, spreading its rays of guidance to enlighten those who come in its way.

This post is in series of many to come on the topic of Islam from a Sufi Perspective. More articles are to follow. Please follow in the Category : Islam as a Sufi Perspective.

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