KHANQAH EMADIA QALANDARIA Mangal Talab, Patna City, Bihar, India

Several Khanqahs are located in India, particularly in the state of Bihar. Among all the Khanqahs, Khanqah Emadia Qalandaria is unique. It is located at Mangal Talab (Previously known as Mangle’s Tank), Patna City. For centuries it is specifically engaged in sincere public service by helping the society in their social and spiritual matters. It is distinct in many ways.

There were great theologians, learned men, poets, literary persons and renowned physicians in the Khanqah, established by the saint Hazrat Khwaja Emaduddin Qalandar who was affectionately called “King” by his disciples. At present it is Al-Haaj Hazrat Maulana Syed Shah Misbahul Haque Emadi who is responsible for rendering the social, theological and spiritual needs of the present society in continuation of the noble works his elders did in the past. He is an emblem of knowledge and dedication in line with his ancestors. He is the Xth Sajjada Nasheen of this Khanqah and admirably performing the work of public service and guidance to society. All Sajjada Nasheen of this Khanqah, besides giving importance to the main aim of serving the cause of Islam gave priority to foster amity and brotherhood among all communities and were always ready for the service to humanity. They wrote simple but appealing books in prose and also created exemplary poetry highlighting national integrity, universal brotherhood and promote the desired relationship between the one and only creator with His creations.

Hazrat Khwaja Emaduddin Qalandar after gaining spiritual training from Hazrat Fazil Qalandar who lived in Sadhor, located in Haryana, came back in 1104 A.H to Phulwari Shareef which was his ancestral place for the last 200 years and started the work of teaching and preaching spiritualism. His father Hazrat Burhanuddin Qadri Rahmatullah Alaih preferred seclusion to spend more time in his meditation. He bestowed upon Hazrat Emad all the responsibilities of his Khanqah after imparting him with all the necessary theological knowledge and spiritual training. Hazrat Emad was also blessed with the Khilafat of his father’s Silsila (Silsila-E-Junaidia).

Hazrat Khwaja Emaduddin Qalandar besides giving importance to the study of Islam took deep interest in the establishment of a better society. Keeping this view in his mind he wrote a booklet, first of its kind in Urdu at the meager age of 13 or 14, called “Seraat-E-Mustaqeem Al-maroof Seedha Raasta” (Straight Path) which primarily caters to the welfare of women. This work is considered the pioneer work of Urdu Language in Bihar. Hazrat was very fond of acquiring books and took it as a mission to make his father’s library as a great personal treasure-house to be used by his family members and disciples. This library has since been a matter of great personal pride for each Sajjada Nasheen of Khanqah Emadia. The present Sajjada is its whole and sole owner. It has almost 1000 valuable texts. Most of them are hand written manuscripts of religious scholars of this Khanqah and some are written by other Sufis (saints).
After returning to Phulwari Shareef Hazrat Qalandar started teaching in place of his father. The school called Darul-Uloom Emadia runs even today and students come to study here in large number. It is located in the premises of Khanqah and all expenditures of the students are borne by the Khanqah’s managing committee for this seminary.

Hazrat Tajul Aarfeen Pir Mujeebullah Qadri Rahmatullah Alaih was the first, most beloved and close disciple of Hazrat Khwaja Emaduddin Qalandar. When Khwaja Qalandar died in 1124 A.H, his son Hazrat Syed Shah Ghulam Naqshband Sajjad became next Sajjada Nasheen to take his place.

He was a classic poet of Urdu and Persian and also expert on matters of spirituality. He was a true saint. One of his verses can be presented as an example of the artistry which he had in combining the Urdu and its sister Hindi of that era.

“Lahad par jo sabze hain unko na toongo,
Mere dost hain woh mere paasbaan hain”
(Please do not pluck or remove the greeneries from my grave: these are my friends as well as caretaker)

One by one two daughters of Hazrat Taaj-Al-Arfeen were married to Hazrat Sajjad. He had no male issue .He was father of two daughters. One of the daughters was married to Hazrat Noorul Haque Tapaan, son of Hazrat Abdul Haque, the elder grandson of Taaj-Al-Arfeen. When Hazrat Sajjad died in 1113A.H, his son-in-law Shah Noorul Haque Tapaan became the next Sajjada Nasheen of Khanqah Emadia.

Hazrat Tapaan was a poet also. He produced his excellent book of poems in Persian in IV volumes. These are available in the library of Khanqah. He also left a big collection of his Urdu couplets. Just to highlight the excellence of his thoughts, his style, and his mastery of the language the following three verses are sufficient as an example:

“Tamanna Thee Ke Har Dam Teri Surat Dekhte Rahte,
Tu Hota Saamne Ham Taa Qayaamat Dekhte Rahte;
Kiya Sajde Mein La Kar Kisne Mujhko Kushta-E-Hairat,
Jo Hote Butkade Mein Haq Ki Qudrat Dekhte Rahte;
Tapaan Hum Khud Na Hote Beech Unki Aankhon Se,
Lagaaye Taktaki Woh Pyari Surat Dekhte Rahte.”

(The earnest desire was just to focus my eyes all the times on your face,
You being in front of my eyes and I gazing like this till eternity;
Who made me a martyr of astonishment by bringing me in the state of prostration?
If I was in a temple, I would have been alive exploring the might of the Almighty;
Tapaan, if I would not have been there in the middle of those eyes, I would have continuously glancing at that lovely face;)

These verses depict not only the level of his contemplation; but also symbolize the aspects of national integration, communal harmony and religious tolerance.

While Hazrat Tapaan was Sajjada Nasheen of Khanqah Emadia, his grandfather Hazrat Tajul Aarfeen died in 1191 A.H. Some people who were jealous of him started opposing him openly, even to the extent of causing physical and material harm. Hazrat had become old and weak. Due to his ill health; he gave away his seat in 1211 A.H. He made his son Hazrat Maulana Syed Shah Zahoorul Haque Zahoor Emadi (RA) the next Sajjada Nasheen. At this change the opposition and enmity became more intense. Hazrat Zahoor tried to minimize his interaction with the world outside Khanqah. Moreover his responsibilities had increased manifold after his becoming the Sajjada Nasheen. On the other hand an uncle of Hazrat Tapaan, Hazrat Shah Nematullah was the Sajjada Nasheen of Khanqah Mujeebia. Difficulties against the Khanqah were increasing. The trouble became so acute that Hazrat Zahoor left Phulwari shareef one fine morning along with his family including his father who was not keeping good health. They reached Patna city by night and stayed with Hazrat Shah Ambar who was a disciple of his grandfather Tajul Aarfeen. The mosque and grave of Shah Amber still exist at Jhao Ganj, Patna City. While leaving Phulwari shareef along with his family, Hazrat carried with him Moo-E-Mubarak (the blessed holy hair of the holy Prophet), some other valuable items of his ancestors and few books and manuscripts.

After coming to Patna city, when Hazrat Zahoor went to Phulwari shareef the next day to bring his luggage and other commodities, he found that his house was burnt down along with the mosque, his Khanqah and his library. Many historical and valuable assets were lost in the fire. He returned back, taking with him a half-burnt robe and handkerchief of the founder of Khanqah, Hazrat Khwaja Emaduddin Qalandar. Some books that were not completely burnt were picked from the heap of ashes. These items are still present in Khanqah Emadia.

After staying for few days in the house of Khwaja Amber, he shifted into the mausoleum of Mir Ashraf (presently in supervision of Archeological Survey Of India). Both father and son were so badly shaken by this departure from the ancestral place that Hazrat Tapaan fell ill and died within three years on 04th of Shabaan 1233 A.H. Just after few months on 16th Zeeqadah 1234 A.H. Hazrat Zahoor also died. He was the third Sajjada Nasheen of Khanqah Emadia. He holds a very high place among all descendents of Tajul Aarfeen and being an exemplary person with great talents that all those connected to him will always remain proud of him So far in this Emadia chain of luminaries, no one has been more qualified as regard knowledge, literary works, religious practice and preaching of theology and spirituality, devotion and dedication to the Almighty. It is said that he wrote more than one hundred books but unfortunately most of them have been lost. Only 31 of his books are present in Emadia library. Copies of his several books may be found in some important libraries in the country as well as outside the country.
Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz of Delhi who was an authority on Hadith, has acknowledged his knowledge of Hadith and issued a certificate to this effect. Hazrat Shah Zahoorul Haque memorized the Quraan and also was a hafiz of Sahihain i.e. Hadith Bukhari & Muslim Shareef (text as well as the chain of narration).

After his death, his eldest son Hazrat Shah Naseerul Haque became next Sajjada of the Khanqah. He was very devotional and a pious man. He wrote many books which are available in the library. He died in 1260 A.H. He did not have a male issue. Therefore after his death his younger brother Syed Shah Ali Ameerul Haque became next Sajjada Nasheen. He was a kotwal posted at Allahabad. He had to resign from the job as is required to become a Sajjada Nasheen. He was a learned man. Because of his able leadership many improvements and developments took place in Khanqah. The present building of Khanqah is due to his endeavor. He purchased land and constructed the building. The whole building of Khanqah Emadia, inclusive of community hall, private chamber, residential portion and mosque were built not only under his personal supervision in a span of just two years but were actually designed and drafted by him. The upper story of residential portion fell down in the earthquake of 1934. The arch of the mosque was designed by Hazrat Shah Ameerul Haque himself. The chamber of Moo-E-Mubarak in red color was also designed and carved by him. He was very fond of construction work and adept at draftsmanship. This is amply reflected on the very first glance of the old building of Khanqah Emadia. He had such an expertise that in just 29 days he memorized the whole Quraan shareef. After living a long life Hazrat Ameerul Haque Rahmatullah Alaih died on 05th Moharram Al-Haraam 1302 AH. On his death, his son Hazrat Syed Shah Rasheedul Haque Emadi became the next Sajjada Nasheen.

Hazrat Shah Rasheedul Haque was very handsome and a man of elegant personality. He used to visit regularly the graves of holy men. While going to perform the Hajj, he visited Iran, Iraq, and other pilgrimage centers located in Arabia. He returned back after two years. He had comprehensive knowledge of Quraan and wrote commentary on it but that could not be published. Unpublished work is preserved in Khanqah library. He recorded his experience during the journey in the form of a travelogue and entitled it “Rehlatul Rasheed Al Muqamaat Al Sayeed”, which is present in the library. He died in 1339 A.H. After his death, his son Hazrat Maulana Sayyed Shah Habibul Haque Emadi became VIIth Sajjada Nasheen of the Khanqah. He memorized the Quraan shareef and was very good at the art of calligraphy. The books written by him are fine specimen of beautiful handwriting. He was a good orator and preacher. He often took part in lively arguments with people belonging to Arya Samaj. Having a deep knowledge of Quraan-E-Kareem he used to lecture on its commentary at various places in the town. Once a week he used to teach in Khanqah, the commentary on Quraan and one day used to teach Masnavi of Maulana Rumi. He continued with the tradition of teaching students who came to learn the science of religion. Though there was shortage of residential space after the quake of 1934 but he continued his teaching classes. In September 1942, on 1st Ramadan 1361 AH, he died. After his death, his eldest son Hazrat Maulana Sayyed Shah Sabihul Haque Emadi became VIIIth Sajjada Nasheen of the Khanqah. He was VIIth descendent of Hazrat Tajul Aarfeen.

He studied under Maulana Azad Subhani and acquired spiritual knowledge from his father Hazrat Sayyed Shah Habibul Haque Emadi Rahmatullah Alaih and Grandfather Sayyed Shah Rasheedul Haque Emadi Rahmatullah Alaih.
Apart from being a good orator, he was a fine essayist. Features written by him were often broadcast from All India Radio and published in periodicals and journals. He wrote a biography of Hazrat Sheikh Sharafuddin Yahya Maneri Rahmatullah Alaih by the name of “Zikr-E-Sharaf”. He was a good poet and possessed melodious voice. He completed the writing of commentary on Quraan which was started by his father and also taught it in Khanqah. He used to teach Masnavi Maulana Rumi on every Sunday after the night prayer and explain its philosophy and deep meanings hidden in the simple verses. His Duaas (supplications) after the prayers were very eloquent, particularly at the end of Morning Prayer on the occasion of Shab-E-Barat and the last Friday of Ramadan (also known as Jummatul Widaa). He used to describe the events of Karbala on Xth of Moharram Al Haraam in a way that no body could control their tears. It is said that his father as well as his grandfather too used to pray similarly and crowds of hundreds and thousands of people used to weep profusely. When Hazrat Sayyed Shah Sabihul Haque Emadi Rahmatullah Alaih died on Friday at 1: 10 pm on 24th of Moharram Al Haraam 1395 AH which falls on February 7, 1975, his eldest son Hazrat Maulana Sayyed Shah Faridul Haque Emadi became the next Sajjada Nasheen of Khanqah.
During his time the Khanqah acquired much more fame and many people became his disciple within the country as well as abroad. Hazrat Farid was a practical man, well behaved and had an exceptionally good moral character. He always remained on the side of truth and always remained firm with truth. He maintained a life according to religion. In order to promote religious knowledge, he re-established Madrasa Darul Uloom Emadia. It is a very prominent institution of its kind in Bihar. He renovated the damaged parts of the Khanqah, its adjacent buildings and the mosque just after becoming the Sajjada Nasheen. He built a dome over the chamber in which Moo-E-Mubarak is solemnly placed. This dome is a replica of Gumbad-E-Khizra. Its inside is decorated with shining tiles. The decorations of mosque that had turned stale were replaced by him with bright and new tiles. Building of the library had become dilapidated. He built a new hall of the library and repaired its almirahs. He even added eight more almirahs of steel. He increased the number of items in the library and established a publication centre by the name of Adara-e-Rasheedia in the memory of his grandfather Hazrat Syed Shah Rasheedul Haque Emadi Rahmatullah Alaih. Many of his writings were published at this centre. He was always ready for the public service and always represented the Khanqah in such endeavors. He died on March 17, 2001. On his death, his eldest son Hazrat Maulana Syed Shah Misbahul Haque Emadi became Sajjada Nasheen of the Khanqah.

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